International Journal of Medical and Exercise Science (IJMAES) is a Multidisciplinary, Peer-Reviewed, Quarterly (March, June, September, December) Publishing and Indexed Journal. The aim of this journal is to enhance the advanced knowledge in all fields of medical and exercise sciences. IJMAES publish original and clinically relevant scientific papers related to Medical, Ayurveda (Indian medicine), Homeopathy, Alternative Medicine, Dentistry, Physiotherapy, Pharmacy, Nursing, Occupational therapy, Radiography, Speech therapy, all Para Medical Sciences and other related medical fields in health care.
2BPT Intern, School of Physiotherapy, D.Y.Patil, Deemed to be University, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Corresponding Author :
1Associate Professor, School of Physiotherapy, D.Y.Patil, Deemed to be University, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India , Mail id: firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction: Text neck syndrome refers to overuse syndrome or repetitive stress injury, in which you have your head hung forward or down looking at your mobile or any other electronic device for a longer period of time. This eventually leads to tightness of the shoulder muscles and soreness in the neck muscles or even chronic headaches. The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of text neck syndrome in young adult population using Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaire.
Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among 100 Physiotherapy students of the age group from 18 to 25 years from D.Y. Patil University, Navi Mumbai. Demographic data was collected and the students were asked to fill the Neck Disability Index questionnaire and the data was further analysed to check which gender and age group was affected the most.
Results: Females were most affected with 80% and the age group which was most affected was 22 years (34%).
Conclusion: This study concluded that prevalence of text neck syndrome is 32%. The major component affected according to neck disability index out of all the components is headache followed by sleeping, concentration and reading.
Keywords: Text neck syndrome, Neck Disability Index, stress injury, soreness, neck muscles
|Received on 8th May 2020, Revised on 22nd May 2020, Accepted on 29th May 2020|
Jomi John1, Jince Augustine2
1Jomi John, MPT Musculoskeletal and Sports-student, CPAS School of Medical Education, Gandhinagar, Kottayam, Kerala, India, Mail id: email@example.com
2Associate Professor of Physiotherapy, CPAS School of Medical Education, Gandhinagar, Kottayam, Kerala, India
Background and objectives: Plantar fasciitis is a commonly confronted orthopedic problem due to inflammation of the plantar fascia and the perifascial structures. The literature attributes plantar fasciitis is due to pathologic biomechanics such as excessive pronation, high arched foot, windlass mechanism and low back disabilities. Current evidences suggest that faulty biomechanics that lead to plantar fasciitis may be started from gluteal muscles weakness. The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of gluteal muscles strengthening exercises to reduce pain and improve lower limb function in patients with plantar fasciitis.
Methods: 30 subjects those satisfying the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Subjects were then allocated to two groups- Group A (control group) and Group B (experimental group), 15 in each group. Subjects in group A received conventional treatment and subjects in group B received experimental treatment of gluteal muscle strengthening exercises with conventional stretching exercise. Pain was measured using Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and lower limb functions was measured using Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT).
Results: The post test score of SEBT and NPRS of control and experimental group were analysed using two sample t test and paired t test. The data analysis showed statistically significance difference in the post test scores of SEBT and NPRS of experimental group over control group at 5% level.
Conclusion: This study concluded that gluteal muscles strengthening exercises helps in improving lower limb function and reduction in pain in patients with plantar fasciitis.
Keywords: Plantar fasciitis, Gluteal muscles, Star Excursion Balance Test, Numeric Pain Rating Scale
|Received on 8th May 2020, Revised on 22nd May 2020, Accepted on 29th May 2020|
1Professor, Faculty of Physiotherapy, DR MGR Educational and Research Institute, Deemed to be University, Chennai, India
2Physiotherapist, Ergon Physiotherapy and fitness lifestyle, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai, India, Mail id: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background and objective of the study: Cricket is the most popular team sport in Indian subcontinent. Hand grip strength plays a vital part in all roles of cricket which may be associated with Body Mass Index. Grip strength is the force applied by the hand to pull or suspend from objects and is a specific part of hand strength. BMI is an attempt to quantify the amount of tissue mass (muscle, fat and bone) in an individual to categorize a person as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese based on values. Objective of the study was to find out the association between BMI and hand grip strength in university level cricketers.
Methodology: This was an experimental and cross-sectional type study carried out at Faculty of physiotherapy, Dr. M.G.R. Educational and research institute, Chennai. Total 30 male cricketers, with age group of 18 to 25 years were included in this study. Cricketers with upper limb fractures or dislocations within one year were excluded from the study. Hand grip dynamometer, weighing machine and inch tape were the materials and measurement tools used for the study. 30 University level cricketers were divided into 4 groups, Group A, Group B, Group C and Group D based on BMI level. Body Mass Index and Hand grip strength are the outcome measures. Body mass index were calculated by measuring the height and weight of the individuals. Hand grip strength was measured for their dominant side by using the hand grip dynamometer.
Result: There is a positive association and strong correlation between Body Mass Index and Hand Grip Strength between the Groups at (r = 0.523) & (P ≤ 0.05).
Conclusion: The study concluded that cricket players with Obese Body Mass Index have more Hand Grip Strength. The study also reported a strong association of Hand Grip Strength with Body Mass Index.
Keywords: Body Mass Index (BMI), Hand grip strength, Cricketers, Hand grip dynamometer.
|Received on 22nd April 2020, Revised on 22nd May 2020, Accepted on 29th May 2020|
1Physiotherapy Program, Fakultas Vokasi, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
*Physiotherapy Program, Fakultas Vokasi, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia. E-mail id: email@example.com
Background of study: The strength of a straight punch, uppercut and hook is needed by a professional boxer to knock down his opponent. Therefore, in the training program for a boxer, it is necessary to analyze the biomechanical characteristics and bio motoric components, which influence its, strength, endurance, and speed by not ignoring psychological factors and the degeneration process that occurs. Degeneration is a natural process, which occurs in every individual, from the cellular level to the level of movement. It functions since 30 years of age characterized by the disappearance of the ability of cells and tissues to repair and replace themselves and maintain normal structure, as well as resulting a decrease in all body functions for 1% every year.
Methodology: This article is a qualitative description with a literature study which analyzes various theories by experts in bio motoric components, degeneration processes, and psychological factors in the form of anxiety.
Result: A balance between physical can slow the degeneration process, psychological, and environmental factors including the life style of a boxer, the factors of strength, endurance, speed, and psychological factors in the form of anxiety influence each other, both directly and indirectly against peak performance in the achievement of a boxer.
Conclusion: Periodic measurements and evaluations of bio motoric components and mental training have to be considered, so that during the golden age, boxers can achieve optimally.
Keywords: Bio motoric, degeneration process, golden age, professional boxer.
|Received on 18th May 2020, Revised on 26th May 2020, Accepted on 29th May 2020|
1Physiotherapy Department, School of Health Sciences, KPJ Healthcare University College, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
2Medical Imaging Department, School of Health Sciences, KPJ Healthcare University College, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
1*Physiotherapy Department, School of Health Sciences, KPJ Healthcare University College, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Mail id: firstname.lastname@example.org
|Background and objectives: Dynamic warm-ups prepare the body for activity by helping to increase blood flow and muscle temperature. By calculating the muscle elongation, muscle thickness and pennation angle, it will show the effectiveness of the dynamic elongation task. Ultrasound imaging involves the use of a transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. Ultrasound images of the musculoskeletal system provide the pictures of muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, and soft tissues throughout the body. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the changes in the muscle tendon unit displacement among healthy male subjects in dynamic task of a gastrocnemius muscle.
Methods: This experimental study was participated by 32 healthy male subjects among KPJUC students. Musculoskeletal Ultrasound (MSK Ultrasound) performed to collect the data before and after the dynamic task. The measurement was taken for pre and post dynamic elongation task. Paired sample t-test and paired sample correlation were used as a statistical analysis.
Results: This study shows that there is a changes in muscle architecture after the dynamic elongation task. There is significant difference in pennation angle and muscle elongation between pre dynamic elongation task and post dynamic elongation task. For muscle thickness, there is no significant different between pre dynamic elongation task and post dynamic elongation task.
Conclusion: There is a change in muscle tendon unit displacement for gastrocnemius muscle between pre dynamic elongation task and post dynamic elongation task and the obvious changes can be seen in pennation angle of the muscle. Dynamic elongation task seems to be an effective stretching for rehabilitation purposes because it can produce the changes in muscle architectures.
Keywords: MSK Ultrasound, Pennation Angle, Muscle Thickness, Muscle Elongation, Dynamic Stretching
|Received on 20th February 2020, Revised on 26th February 2020, Accepted on 29th February 2020. DOI:10.36678/ijmaes.2020.v06i01.007|
2B.P.T. Graduate, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr.MGR. Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
3 Professor, JDT Islam College of Physiotherapy, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
1Asst. Professor, JDT Islam College of Physiotherapy, Kozhikode, Kerala, India.
Mail id: email@example.com
Background: In recent years, the number of smart phone users has progressively increased worldwide. Using smart phone for prolonged time will cause faulty posture or poor posture such as forward head posture and rounded shoulders.The structural problems caused by faulty posture can also lead to respiratory dysfunction. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of exercise on posture and respiratory function among smart phone users.
Methods: This study was an experimental with conventional type. The study was carried out in faculty of physiotherapy at A.C.S Medical College And Hospital. 100 samples were taken and assessed posture and respiratory function. Subjects with poor posture and respiratory dysfunction were trained with exercise for 4 weeks. Both male and female aged between 18 -25 years using smart phone more than 4 hours were included in the study. Individuals with any cervical deformity were excluded in the study. Craniovertebral angle, Scapular index and PEFR were the outcome measures used in this study.
Results: On comparing the mean values of Pre Test & Post Test on Craniovertebral Angle, it shows significant difference between Pretest (28.28) & Posttest (35.05) at P ≤ 0.001. On comparing the Pre Test & Post Test on Scapular Index, it shows significant mean difference between Pretest (70.60) & Posttest (74.91) at P ≤ 0.001. On comparing the Pre Test & Post Test on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate(PEFR), it shows significant mean difference between Pretest (191.42) & Posttest (248.57) at P ≤ 0.001.
Conclusion: The study concluded that stretching and breathing exercise has considerable effects in improving the posture and respiratory function among Smartphone users.
Keywords: Smartphone, PEFR, Posture, Goniometer, Stretching exercise , Breathing exercise
|Received on 15 th February 2020, Revised on 22nd February 2020, Accepted on 29th February 2020. DOI:10.36678/ijmaes.2020.v06i01.006|
2Lecturer,Post Graduate Studies, Master of Management Program, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
3Lecturer,Faculty of Vocational Studies, Physiotherapy Program, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
1Lecturer, Faculty of Vocational Studies, Physiotherapy Program, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia, email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Background: Physiotherapy service standards are used as a basis for risk management in preparing strategies to anticipate unexpected events that appear in the management of the physiotherapy process. This research aims to improve the quality of physiotherapy services through the calculation of the risk of the physiotherapy process and risk mitigation measures using the Workload Indicator Staffing Need (WISN) method from the World Health Organization (WHO).
Methods: The research uses the stages of risk management as a method of analysis and WISN as a method for risk mitigation. Risk analysis begins with the identification of risks and then measures the risks by calculating the probabilities and impacts of these risks and designing risk management as mitigation.
Results: Based on the research that has average 50-60/day, which is not proportional to the number of only 4 physiotherapists. In addition, there is a lack of physiotherapy intervention tools.
Conclusion: In this research it has concluded that to improve the quality of physiotherapy services must be done by making policies to mitigate unexpected events and reducing the probabilities such as: increasing the number of physiotherapists and arranging the separation schedule of examination days for physiotherapy been done, events with the highest risk are found in the stages of examination and measurement, documentation, and physiotherapy intervention where there is an opportunity to reduce the type and duration of long or unsuccessful healing interventions. The trigger for the occurrence of potential risks is the number of patients on measurements from intervention days and increasing the number of physiotherapy intervention tools.
Keywords: Physiotherapy Process, Workload Indicator of Staffing Need, Risk Management
|Received on 15 th February 2020, Revised on 22nd February 2020, Accepted on 29th February 2020, DOI:10.36678/ijmaes.2020.v06i01.005|
|S.Ramachandran1, C.J.Sivadharsini2, Jibi Paul3
1,3Pofessor, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr.MGR. Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
2B.P.T. Graduate, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr.MGR. Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
Mail id: email@example.com
Background of the study: Obesity refers to a condition of excessive amount of body fat. The commonly known obesity are Central Obesity which occur due to the excess accumulation of fat in abdominal area. Various exercise have been designed for obesity but in particular exercise designed for abdomen are using mat, swiss ball and theraband exercise. Hence the study was to evaluate the effect by comparing mat, swiss ball and theraband exercise on abdominal obesity.
Methodology: It was an experimental study with comparative pre-post type. Study setting was conducted at Faculty of physiotherapy A.C.S Medical college and hospital, Chennai. 30 Subjects were randomly allocated equaly in to three groups. The sudy conducted for a duration of 12 weeks. Abdominal obesity female students ranges between the age of 18yrs-25yrs were selected for the study. Mat, Swiss ball, Theraband were used as materials for the study. Group A received mat exercise, Group B received swissball exercise and Group C received Theraband exercise. Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist circumferences were outcome measures for this study.
Result: On comparing Mean values of Group A, Group B & Group C; the Body Mass Index (BMI) shows significant decrease in the Post test Mean values. MAT Exercise with Group A shows mean value of 24.44 which is less effective than Theraband Exercise Group C value of 26.13 and Swiss Ball Exercise Group B with value of 40.09 shows significant difference between the group with P ≤ 0.001. On comparing Mean values of Group A, Group B & C on Waist Circumference shows significant decrease in the Post test Mean values; On MAT Exercise shows 95.50 which is lower mean value than Theraband Exercise Group C with 96.00 and Swiss Ball Exercise Group B with 96.50 shows significant difference between the group with P ≤ 0.001.
Conclusion: The study concluded that BMI and waist circumference of Group A shows better reduction when compared to Group B and C.
Keywords: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Obesity, Exercise Mat, Swissball, Theraband
Received on 12 th February 2020, Revised on 19th February 2020, Accepted on 28th February 2020, DOI:10.36678/ijmaes.2020.v06i01.004
|Jibi Paul1, Louis Christy Maxwell2*, Ena Dulom2, B D Mark Raj2, Moorthy A3|
1Pofessor, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr.MGR. Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
2B.P.T. Graduate, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr.MGR. Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
3Asst.Professor, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr.MGR. Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
2*B.P.T. Graduate, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr.MGR. Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
Mail id: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background of the Study: Shoulder is a very complex joint crucial to many activities of daily living. Decrease shoulder mobility is a serious clinical finding in Frozen shoulder or Adhesive capsulitis, which affects 2-5% of the population and is most common in 40-60-year age group. The aim of the study is to compare the aquatic training exercise over free exercise on shoulder function among patients.
Methodology: This was an Experimental study with 30 male and female players. They were divided into two groups by simple sampling method, 15 players in each group. Age group of the subjects was 40 to 60 years. Group A players were trained with aquatic training. Group B players were trained with free exercise. Both the group players are trained for 4 weeks and 3 sessions in a week. Intervention was done in swimming pool at Rajiv Gandhi stadium, Chennai and free exercise therapy executed at Physiotherapy department ACS Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. Outcome Measures were, Range of Movement measured by Goniometer, Pain measured by Visual Analog Scale and Function was measured by (SPADI) Shoulder pain and disability index.
Result: On comparing Pre-test and Post-test within and between Group A & Group B on Visual Analog Scale, SPADI & Shoulder Range of Motion shows significant difference in Mean values at P ≤ 0.001.
Conclusion: Study concluded that the subjects treated with Aquatic Exercise showed more improvement than and Free Exercise in shoulder pain, range of movement and function.
Keywords: Frozen Shoulder, Aquatic Training, Range of Movement, Shoulder Pain And Disability Index
|Received on 12 th February 2020, Revised on 19th February 2020, Accepted on 26th February 2020|
2Pofessor, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr.MGR. Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
3Asst. Professor, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr.MGR. Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
1B.P.T. Graduate, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr.MGR. Deemed to be University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
Mail id: email@example.com
Background of The Study: Hamstring is one of the commonest muscles often get tight as the biomechanics of hamstrings are complex because they pull over hip and knee joints. Stretching methods often define the development and improves body’s range of motion. Goal of all stretching relaxation is to provide joint mobility while maintaining joint stability. Hold relax is a technique of facilitating normal muscle sensation and muscle awareness. It is a relaxation technique to obtain lengthening reaction of muscle whose action is antagonist to movement limited in range. It is effective, simple and pain-free. PNF is used to supplement daily stretching and employed to quick gain in ROM, decreases in fatigue, prevent overuse injuries. The main objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of passive stretching over PNF hold relax technique on hamstring tightness in young individuals.
Materials And Methods: 100 normal male and female subjects were recruited for the study with age group of 18-25 yrs and divided into two groups. Group A (n=50) treated with passive stretching Group B (n=50) treated with hold relax PNF technique. Outcome measures of the study were Finger Tip to Floor test, Back Saver Sit and Reach test.
Result: The study shows there is statistical significant difference with P≤0.001 between Group A and B. When compare the two groups, Group B with PNF Hold relax gives more effective than the Group A with Passive stretching with Back Saver Sit and Reach test.
Conclusion: The study concluded that PNF Hold Relax technique showed greater improvement than Passive Stretching on hamstring flexibility .
Key words: Hamstring flexibility, Passive stretching, PNF hold relax, Finger Tip to Floor test, Back Saver Sit and Reach test.
Received on 10 th February 2020, Revised on 19th February 2020, Accepted on 25th February 2020
|Lucky Anggiat1, Wan Hazmy Che Hon2, Siti Nur Baait binti Mohd Sokran3, Nurul Mawaddah Binti Mohammad3
1Faculty of Vocational Studies, Physiotherapy Program, Universitas Kristen Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
3School of Health Sciences, KPJ Healthcare University College, Nilai, Malaysia
2Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon, KPJ Seremban Specialist Hospital and KPJ Healthcare University College, Jalan Toman 1, Kemayan Square, 70200 Seremban. Email address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background of study: Non-specific low back pain (LBP) becomes the most common cases in University population. Prolonged sitting has been identified as one of the factors leading to non-specific LBP among University population. The purpose of the study is to identify the change of functional disability in non-specific LBP among university population after PNF and McKenzie method.
Methods: A quasi-experimental study involving 36 subjects (students and office workers) from the university population. The study population were selected from students and office worker of KPJ Healthcare University College (KPJUC) who met the inclusion criteria. The subjects were divided into three treatment groups: PNF group, McKenzie group and control group (hot pack and educational home exercise sheet) which underwent 12 treatment sessions distributed over three times in a week for four weeks duration. Subjects were measured on functional disability by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Measurement was performed at pre-test, mid-test and post-test. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyse the effectiveness of PNF and McKenzie treatments based on the measurement time.
Result: This study showed that the PNF and McKenzie gave effect in improving ODI score in within group analysis. However, the results of PNF showed that it has more effect than McKenzie method on functional disability score (p <0.05) after 4 weeks.
Conclusion: There was a change in functional disability on non-specific LBP after PNF and McKenzie method. Furthermore, the study findings showed that the PNF exercise has more effect in improving functional disability compared to McKenzie method on non-specific LBP among university population.
Keywords: Functional Disability; Mckenzie; Non-Specific LBP; PNF
Background and objectives:The Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of a pair of ligaments in knee which provides stabilization and guiding of joints. There are varieties of graft sources have been used for ACL reconstruction over the past 30 years. Studies shows that ACL reconstruction and rehabilitation is widely conducted in other Asia countries and none were done in KPJ Seremban Specialist Hospital. Hence, this study is to determine the outcome of physiotherapy rehabilitation on ROM, pain level and muscle strength following ACL reconstruction patient in KPJ Seremban Specialist Hospital.
Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective study, secondary data collection whereby studies are carried out at one time point or over a short period.Checklist form was used to determine the physiotherapy assessment and interventions.
Results: A total of 122 subject were involved in this study. 88.3% male and 11.7% females undergone ACL reconstruction. Most common physiotherapy intervention used are IT and cryotherapy (90%) and combination of strengthening and mobility exercises (94.5%) and there is no significant difference in both intervention groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Studies conducted shows there is no significant difference in the evaluation of range of motion of knee, pain scale and muscle strength could be due to the intervention used were not particular and commonly used.
Keywords: Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Physiotherapy Rehabilitation.
Background of the study: Core muscle strength training program is to prevent low back pain, to initiate limb movement for proper utilization of the muscle force and to enhance performance. This study was to compare the effectiveness of core muscles strength training with supine bridging over prone bridging in patients with non specific low back pain.
Methodology: This was an experimental study of comparative type with 40 subjects. They were equally divided into two groups (20 in each group) by random sampling method. Study was carried out at Physiotherapy department, A.C.S Medical college and hospital, Chennai -77 for duration of 4 weeks. Subjects with the age group between 20 to 35 years with non specific low back pain were included in this study. Group A with Prone bridging exercise received elbow plank and extended plank exercises. Group B with Supine bridging exercise received traditional bridge and alternate single leg bridge exercises. Non specific low back pain and functional disability were outcome measures of the study. VAS and ODI were used as an outcome measurement tools.
Result: On comparing the mean values of Group A and Group B on Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index Questionnarie Group A with Prone bridging exercise showed a mean difference of 1.95 and 8.85 on VAS and ODI respectively, which is more effective than Group B with supine bridging exercise with mean difference of 1.8 and 7.95 respectively on VAS and ODI with significant difference at P<0.0001.
Conclusion: This study concluded that prone bridging exercise is more effective in improvement of functional activities and reducing pain than supine bridging exercise program in non specific low back pain.
Keywords: Prone bridging, supine bridging, low back pain, functional disability.
Background of the study: The core musculature in concludes the muscle of the trunk and pelvis that are responsible for the maintenance of stability of spine and pelvis help in generation and transfer of energy from large to small body parts during for the cricket players in cricket. Objective of the study was to determine the effect of pelvic core exercise training on gluteus strength among college level cricketers.
Methodology: This was an observational study with convenient sampling of pre and post experimental study design. Forty male cricket players were recruited from the students at Dr.MGR Deemed University with the age group of 18 to 25 years. Cricket players were included after specific selection criteria for the study. Pelvic core exercise was given to the participants for 6 weeks. Single leg pelvic bridging test used to measure the strength of gluteus muscle before and after the training. The core exercise training will give to all cricketers. The prescribed exercise performed for 4 days in a week for 30 minutes and this were followed for 6 weeks. At the end, they were assed with single leg pelvic Bridging test. Paired T-test analysis used to find the significant difference between pre and post test measurement.
Results: Pelvic core exercise training found significant effect on improving the strength of gluteus muscles among college level cricketers with mean difference of 6.68 and P<0.0001.
Conclusion: This study concluded that Pelvic core exercise training can improve the strength of gluteus muscles among college level cricketers.
Keywords: Cricketers, Pelvic core exercise, Gluteus strength, Single leg pelvic bridging test
Introduction: Moberg pickup test (MPUT) is a standardized test for hand dexterity developed by Erik Moberg, in 1958. This test also assesses cognition, stereognosis, and comprehension. Aim of the study was to find the normative values for the Moberg pickup test and to find the impact of gender and handedness on hand dexterity among carpel tunnel syndrome patients.
Method: This was a Cross-sectional study, conducted at JSS College of physiotherapy, Mysuru, Karnataka for a duration of 2 months. This study was done on a population of 171 typical young adults comprising of 37 males and 134 females with an age group between 17 and 25 years. Test objects were placed on the table on the same side of right and left hands being tested with eyes open and closed, whereas the container was placed on the opposite side of the hand being tested. Three trials were done and the best out of the three was taken for analysis to obtain the normative values for Mobergpickup test.
Result: The results show that the hand dexterity of the subjects was significantly good. Eyes open and close on dominant hand and Non dominant hand with mean values of 7.735, 12.806 and 9.206, 14.327 respectively.
Conclusion: Females performed the test faster than males, and task performance with the dominant hand was faster than the non-dominant hand.
Keywords: Hand dexterity, Moberg Pick-Up Test, Carpel tunnel syndrome, Normative values
Introduction: Musicians just like any other occupation are prone to injuries. Every type of work requires certain bodily movements and positions to be used in a repetitive manner. These injuries/disorders then in turn affect the ability of the musician to play his instrument most efficiently. The purpose of this study was to find out prevalence of Upper Limb Problems in Instrumental Subjects using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire.
Methodology: A cross sectional survey was conducted on 100 Subjects from Mumbai, aged 15 to 30 years who were right hand dominant and had a minimum of 3 years of experience playing a musical instrument. Demographic data was collected and the subjects were asked to fill the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire for the Dominant as well as the Non Dominant Upper Limb. The Data collected was further analyzed.
Result: The subjects playing Keyboards were mostly affected on dominant side by DASH score with mean value 11.086. Symptoms on the dominant and non dominant sides were 40.23% and 45.95% respectively with functional disability on the dominant side 31.42%. Percussionist were most affected in the psychological aspect with 33.33%, where string players were more affected in Music Module Domain with mean value 14.305.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the subjects playing Keyboards were mostly affected in most domains of DASH Scale. Percussionist were the most affected in Psychological Domain and the subjects playing Strings were most affected in the Music Module Domain in DASH scale.
Keywords: Musicians, Upper Limb Problems, Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scale
|Jibi Paul1 , Kousalya. P2
1Professor, Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr.MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
2Student , Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr.MGR Educational and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Mail Id: email@example.com
Background of the study: Tennis Elbow/Lateral Epicondylitis is a work-related pain disorder of common extensor muscles, usually caused by excessive quick repetitive movements of wrist and forearm. The main objective of the study is to find the comparative analgesic effect of isometric and isotonic exercises on forearm extensors for lateral epicondylitis of elbow.
Methodology: This was a comparative study with pre and post intervention. 30 subject with tennis elbow were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Further the group was divided into 2 with 15 subjects in each group. The study duration was 4 weeks. Male and female subjects were included in this study. Age group between 30-50 years of age. Group A with 15 subjects were received isometric exercise and Group B with15 subjects received isotonic exercise for a period of 3 sets of 10 repetition for 4 weeks in alternative day. Pain and functional disability were assessed before and after the intervention session using the measurement tools VAS (Visual analogue scale), and PRTEE (Patient- rated tennis elbow evaluation questionnaire). The special test done for confirming lateral epicondylitis were COZEN’S test and MILL’S TEST.
Result: The result of this study shows that there was significant changes in outcome measures between the Group A (isometric exercise) and Group B (isotonic exercise) with P <0.0001.
Conclusion: The study concluded that isometric exercise is better than isotonic exercise on decreasing the pain and improving the functional activity of patients with lateral epicondylitis of elbow.
Keywords: Isometric exercise, isotonic exercise, Tennis elbow, Visual analogue scale (VAS), Patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation questionnaire (PRTEE).
|Received on 23rd August 2019, Revised on 28th August 2019, Accepted on 30th August 2019|
Background of the study: Electronic cigarette or e-cigarette use has become a worldwide phenomenon since 2003. The literature review shows that not much is known about the effect of e-cigarettes on human health; many of the studies on the use of E-cigarettes effect on humans is under clinical trials.
Objective of the study:The study aimed to assess the practice regarding e-cigarette use among youths in one of the private University College in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
Methodology: This research adopted a cross-sectional survey design. Convenience sampling method was used in this study to collect the data from 100 respondents. Descriptive statistics were used for the data analysis.
Result: The findings concluded that the growing demand for e-cigarettes is a serious matter of concern among the youths. The study findings concluded that 73% of the respondents have been using e-cigarettes. Majority of the e-cigarette users (56%) also responded that e-cigarettes were harmful but continued to use the e-cigarettes. The majority (96%) of the users are youths under the age of 24 years and had been influenced by the friends to use e-cigarettes. Another major reason for e-cigarettes over traditional cigarettes was the availability of different flavors of vape liquid to different suite preferences.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the trend of e-cigarettes usage is growing at an alarming rate. There are many factors facilitating the use of e-cigarettes among youths. It is recommended that serious regulatory measures are needed from various health sectors to raise awareness regarding the ill effects of e-cigarettes usage among the youths.
Keywords: Electronic cigarette, Human health, Harmful , Vape liquid
Background of the study: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the 5th cause of mortality and morbidity in the world and represents an economic and social burden. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a chronic pulmonary disorder affecting 10%-15% individuals over age of 45 years. Objective of the study is to compare the effect of conventional pulmonary rehabilitation and Global Postural Re-education method on pulmonary function and thoracic expansion in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Methodology: This was an experimental Study of two groups’ with pre-post comparative study design. The study was conducted for a period of six months in the department of Pulmonology, K.G.Hospital and postgraduate research and medical institute, Coimbatore. All adult patients attending the Pulmonology department of the hospital were assessed and selected for the study. A total of 20 patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were selected by random sampling method and were divided into 2 groups A and B. Pulmonary function test (FEV1/FVC) and Thoracic expansion at Axillary and Xiphoid level was measured and recorded. Unpaired ‘t’test used to find the difference between two groups.
Result: T value for FEV1/FVC was 7.313, thoracic expansion was 11.90 and 16.39 at Axillary & Xiphoid respectively between two groups with ‘P’ value <0.05. The study showed that there is a significant difference in improvement of FEV1/FVC ratio and thoracic expansion in Group-B, who underwent Global postural re-education method.
Conclusion: Global postural re-education method is better intervention in the improvement of pulmonary function, thoracic expansion in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Keywords: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Global Postural Re-education (GPR), Pulmonary function, Thoracic expansion.
Purpose: Intra-rater reliability refers to the consistency of measurements demonstrated in similar assessment situation at two different times by the same examiner which also refers to test-retest. Inter-rater reliability test denotes the consistency of assessments performed by two different examiners. The objective of the study was to determine the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability between experienced and non-experienced physiotherapist on 90-90 active knee extension test using goniometer among healthy college students.
Methodology: This study method is a reliability design in determining hamstring flexibility among 42 young healthy college students of School of Physiotherapy, KPJ Healthcare University College, Nilai, Malaysia. The 90-90 active knee extension was performed using goniometry. Four physiotherapists involved in the study consist of two non-experienced physiotherapist and two experienced physiotherapists.
Results: The mean and standard deviation of active knee extension 90-90 Active Knee extension test among two experienced physiotherapist were 19.830(SD= 10.21) and 43.14 (SD= 47.05). Mean and standard deviation for two non-experienced physiotherapist value were 21.21(SD 11.14) and 42.55 (47.66).
Conclusion: The conclusion of the inter-rater and intra-rater evaluation between experienced and non- experienced physiotherapist showed that goniometer is a reliable tool to evaluate hamstring flexibility among healthy college students.
Keywords: Experienced, Non-Experienced, Physiotherapist, Goniometer, AKE, Inter-rater, Intra-rater
Background Of The Study: Asthma is the clinical syndrome characterized by wheeze. It occurs in younger age group and is caused by trigger factors such as specific allergens (Pollen grain, Dust, Drug). Acapella combines the benefits of both Positive Expiratory Therapy and airway vibrations to mobilize pulmonary secretions and can be used in virtually any position allowing patients to move freely and sit, stand or recline. Objective of the study was to analyse the impact of exercising with Acapella on the PEFR of Chronic Asthmatics.
Methodology: This was an experimental study conducted among 50 subjects of adoloscent age with chronic asthmatics. They were given exercise with Acapella for a frequency of 10 minutes, single session in a day, for 2 weeks duration. The study was conducted in department of Physiotherapy, ACS MedicalCollege and Hospital. Only chronic asthmatics had been selected in this study. The PEFR was used as a outcome measure for this study. The outcome was measured through PEFR values.
Result:The results were analysed for 50 subjects at the end of the study. The improvement was highly significant in chronic asthmatics who exercised with Acapella.
Conclusion: It was concluded from this experimental study the Acapella had more effect on chronic asthmatics and hence prevent premature collapse of alveoli. As it combines the benefits of positive expiratory pressure or PEP therapy with airway vibrations, which makes exhalation against resistance.
Keywords: Peek Expiratory Flow Rate, Chronic Asthmatics, ACAPELLA, trigger factors
Purpose: To investigate the changes that occurs in the cardiovascular system and to measure the anthropometric changes on administering combined dynamic core stability exercises and flexibility exercises in middle aged overweight men population in Chennai.
Methodology: Overweight middle aged male subjects (n = 15) who were desk bourne working for long hours in their office and had not been into regular exercising and lack flexibility were selected based on the BMI who scored more than 25. All were treated with dynamic core stability exercises, stretching exercises of hamstring muscles and
treadmill training without elevation for four weeks. Outcomes was measured for Vo2 max, resting heart rate, sit and reach test values, and waist to hip ratio (WHR). At the end of four weeks of training again post test measurement was made and the results were compared using ttest.
Results: The pretest and postest mean difference of sit and reach test for flexibility is 4.6, resting heart rate is 3.73, while Vo2 max had moderate difference of 1.77 and a very minimal difference of 0.03 in waist to hip ratio. It was
found that the results of flexibility, resting heart rate were more statistically significant with (p<0.001)
whereas Vo2 max and waist to hip ratio were marginally significant.
Conclusion: It is concluded that Dynamic core stability exercises, treadmill exercises and stretching was found to be useful in improving the muscle strength and flexibility. The training was effective in controlling the resting heart rate, however the anthropometric values of WHR and Vo2 max needs to be focused for better improvement.
Keywords: BMI, VO2 max, Resting Heart Rate, Flexibility, Dynamic Core Stability Exercises
Background: Over ages; bronchial asthma and its adverse physiological, psychological impacts upon varied group of age, people, and health remains a searchable quest in its depth. Behaviour modification as an emerging outlook of Physical therapy helps to exhibit positive changes in this broad spectrum of asthma. This study aimed to identify the possible potential factors to improve chest expansion by analysing the effect of buteyko breathing and relaxed postures.
Methods: Experimental study design; 20 patients of the age group 17-19 years were selected using simple random sampling method. Group A; consisting 10 patients were advocated buteyko relaxation training. Group B; consisting of 10 patients were advocated relaxed postures along with the conventional asthma management. Stop watch, nose clip, inch tape, pediatric asthma quality of life questionnaire [PAQLQ] were used as the operational tools. Paired and Unpaired “t” testing was used to analyze the pre- test and the post- test values after a period of 6 months.
Results: Analysis of the peak expiratory flow rate and the quality of life over Group “A” and Group “B” at 0.05% level of significance showed positive results for Group “A” when compared with the ‘t’ value.
Conclusion: The findings support the multidimensional positive effects of behavior modification over the physiological and psychological parameters that lead to the onset of bronchial asthma.
Keywords: Bronchial asthma, behavior modification, buteyko breathing, relaxed postures, peadiatric asthma quality of life questionnaire
Background and objective: Trunk control is a crucial component to perform motor function and also to maintain good posture. Trunk gives background for moving upper limbs and lower limbs. The objective of this study was to find out the effectiveness of selective trunk activities in rehabilitation of hemiplegia.
Methods: It is a pre and post experimental design. 30 patients have participated and were divided into two equal groups. i.e, experimental and control group, with 15 subjects in each group. Experimental group received routine neuro-rehabilitation along with selective trunk activities, whereas, control group received only routine neuro-rehabilitation program. Pre and post assessment of trunk balance and impairment was measured by using Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) and Rivermead Motor Assessment Protocol (RMAP).
Results: Before the treatment mean values of both control and experimental groups were approximately equivalent There was a significant increase in the mean value of the TIS and RMAP in the experimental group than that of the control group.
Conclusion: Posture and stability are the key factors in maintaining proper balance of the trunk. Hence, selective trunk activity has a significant improvement in trunk balance and postural stability and could be considered as an important part in rehabilitation of hemiplegia.
Keywords: Hemiplegia, trunk movements, selective trunk activity, stroke, postural stability, balance.
Back and objective of the study: Individual with neck pain that lack an identifiable patho-anatomic cause for their symptoms are usually classified as having mechanical neck pain. Stretching is believed to provide many physical benefits including improved flexibility, injury prevention, improved muscle or athletic performance. Aim of the study was to find out the effects of static stretching and dynamic stretching on mechanical neck pain and also to compare the effectiveness between static and dynamic stretching on mechanical neck pain.
Methodology: Comparative study with Quasi Experimental design conducted at ACS Medical College and hospital, Chennai. Both genders of thirty patients were selected for the study. Convenient sampling method used to select the samples on the basis of selection criteria. Visual analogue scale and neck disability index were used as measurement tools for data collection. The study conducted for duration of four weeks.
Results: The results shows significant difference in neck pain and neck function between static stretching and dynamic stretching with F value 1733 and <0.0001. Static stretching found more effective than and dynamic stretching with more mean difference of VAS and NDI scores 5.33 and 22.8 compared to 1.73 and 12 respectively.
Conclusion: The static stretching is more effective than dynamic stretching in improving pain and functional disability in patients with mechanical neck pain.
Keywords: Mechanical neck pain, Neck Disability Index, Static stretching, Dynamic stretching
Introduction: The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of Otago exercise program (OEP) and strength training program (STP) on lower limb strength and risk of fall among bilateral knee osteoarthritis patients and compare its effects.
Method: Subjects diagnosed with bilateral knee osteoarthritis were included and randomly assigned into group A ( N=20) and group B ( N=20). Subjects in Group A received otago exercise program and strength training program in group B. All the subjects were assessed with baseline and post intervention outcome measure for risk of fall with The Time up and Go test (TUG) and lower limb strength with 30-sec Chair Stand Test.
Result: This study shows that the mean score Inter-group analysis of time up go test (TUG) in between Otago Exercise Program and Strength Training Program group shows (p < 0.05) with significant improvement and with mean score of 30sec Chair Stand Test (30sec CST) on the Lower limb strength in between Otago Exercise Program and Strength Training Program group shows no significant improvement with p value of 0.0570 (p>0.05).In intra group analysis the time up go test shows significant result in OEP group but not in STP group and with the 30 – sec chair stand test showed significant result in both the groups.
Conclusion: The study showed that otago exercise program is effective in reducing the risk of fall and improving lower limb strength among bilateral knee osteoarthritis than Strength training program.
Keywords: Osteoarthritis , Otago exercise program, strength training program, time up and go test, 30-sec Chair Stand Test and risk of fall.
Background of the study: Overweight and obesity are due to abnormal or excessive fat accumulation which causes problems in health. Body mass index (BMI) is a simple tool which is used for the classification of overweight and obesity in adults. It is defined as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of his height in meters (kg/m2). The sole motto of this study would be to compare the self-image on body shape among college students and corporate sector employees.
Methodology: Subjects fitting into the inclusion criteria were selected and screened for their BMI after obtaining a proper consent. They were allocated into two groups, among which, one group with college students and the other group with employees of corporate sector (White Collars). Study Setting did at TCS, Chennai and Faculty of Physiotherapy, Dr. MGR. Educational and Research Institute University, Velappanchavadi, Chennai. Subjects were provided with a BSQ-34 questionnaire and asked to respond to each items. At the end, final scores were arrived, which were analyzed & compared statistically between the groups. Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ)-34 score used as Outcome measure to collect the data.
Result: The result of the study shows that there is a considerable difference between the BSQ- 34scores of obese college students and employees of corporate sector. Since the P value is <0.05, the difference is significant.
Conclusion: The present study shows that there is a significant difference between the self image of obese college students and employees of corporate sector. The corporate sector employees being affected more on self image of obesity.
Keywords: Self image on body shape, Obesity, corporate sector, Body Shape Questionnaire
Background of the study: Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) is the fastest growing segment of information technology enabled service industry in India. This research will focus on nightshift work and try to give a brief outline of the health problem faced by employees. Objectives of the study are to understand the health status of the women working in BPOs, to examine how the nightshift duty affects the health of the women working in BPOs and to analyze consequences of the nightshift on the social life of the women working in BPOs.
Methodology: It is a qualitative study which helps the researcher for an in-depth understanding. The study was conducted in Tata Consultancy service (TCS), Chennai. Primary data were collected through interview guide and secondary data from Books, Journals, Published articles, etc. Descriptive research design was employed to study the stated objectives.
Result: Social life of women employees has been affected and they are facing more mental pressure and depression; majority of the respondents faces various health problems like obesity, eye irritation, irregular menstrual cycle, etc.
Conclusion: Night shift has influenced the lifestyle and health of women primarily due to its contemporary work settings.
Keywords: Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), health problems, mental pressure
Background of the study: Knee joint stiffness is one of the commonest complications in patients who had fractures in the femur and upper tibia. Stiffness, restrict range of motion of joint caused by soft tissue tightness and intra articular adhesions. The aim of study is to understand the effects of Muscle Energy Techniques on early knee joint mobilization to improve the range of motion by reducing post traumatic stiffness.
Methodology: A pretest-post test control group design was used for this study. Thirty patients from orthopedic physical therapy outpatient department of Sri Gokulam hospital, Salem were selected for this study and equally divided into two groups. Patients in group-A (Experimental) received wax therapy, static quadriceps exercise, active assisted mobilization and muscle energy techniques. Patients in group-B (control) who received wax therapy, static quadriceps exercise and active assisted knee mobilization. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, Range of motion by Universal Goniometer and muscle strength by Manual Muscle Testing.
Result: The mean post test values for group A and group B are 2.2 and 4.4 for Pain, 103 and 78 for Active Knee Flexion, 7.7 and 6.2 for Quadriceps strength respectively.
Conclusion: The study concluded that Muscle Energy Technique is more effective in improving range of motion, strength of quadriceps muscles and reducing pain in knee joint.
Keywords: Knee joint stiffness, Visual Analogue Scale, Range of motion, Goniometer, Manual Muscle Testing, Muscle Energy Technique
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out the effectiveness of Dynamic Core Stability Exercises and stretching in improving the flexibility of overweight persons who lack flexibility.
Methods: Fifteen (N=15) overweight middle aged male subjects who had not been into regular exercising and lack flexibility were selected based on the BMI who scored more than 25. All were basically screened out for their lifestyle and work related factors. All the samples were put into flexibility test by using modified sit and reach test. All had received dynamic core stability exercises and stretching of hamstring muscles and the outcome measure was measured using manual muscle testing and modified sit and reach test.
Results: The outcome measures of muscle power assessed using manual muscle testing (MMT) method 0-5 grading scale system. The mean value of Pre test MMT score is 3.7 and that of the post test mean value is 4.4 which shows a significant improvement (P<0.0001).The flexibility was measured using modified sit and reach test and its mean pre test value is 9.3 and that of the post test value is 12.3 which shows a highly significant improvement in the flexibility (P<0.0001).
Conclusion: This study showed that person who was identified as overweight based on BMI, were found to be lacking of their body flexibility mainly of back muscles and hamstring muscles. It is concluded that Dynamic core stability exercises and stretching was found to be useful in improving the muscle strength and flexibility.
Keywords: Overweight, BMI, Lack of Flexibility, Dynamic Core Stability Exercises, Stretching, Modified Sit and Reach Test
Back ground of the study: As the adolescence grows the food habits also changes accordingly. Eating healthy food promotes good healthy development among the young citizen called youth. Physical, mental, emotional and social behaviors also get altered due to the junk food habit. This study was aimed to examine the extent which the youth seek junk food, reasons for this craving among youth, impact of junk food eating habit and to study the efforts made to respond the problem of obesity.
Methodology: Exploratory research design with the aims to establish the most basic criteria of the research topic, often before the actual study was started. Convenient sampling method was used for different group of samples. Seventy (70) subjects were participated in the study. Samples selected from college students of 2 different cities in Chennai; Nungambakkam and Avadi. Validated questionnaire were used to find the outcome of the study.
Result: Many responded that the junk food is a solid food it is clearly found with the ratio (65.71%), many finding were observed that the junk food culture and that changes in eating pattern.
Conclusion: The complex and evolving nature of youth attitudes towards obesity prevention efforts and their understanding of the causes and consequences of obesity.
Keywords: Junk food habit, good health, social behaviors, obesity
Background and objectives: Smartphone is ubiquitous in this digital era and the remarkably evolved of technologies is an evident of heavy usage of such gadget in daily life. Recent evidence indicate that there is significant association between upper arm discomfort and smart phone user. However, there is limited finding on the smart phone addiction on upper body discomfort. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate level of smartphone addiction among Kuala Lumpur young adults.
Methods: This is a cross sectional analytical type of study. Self-administer questionnaire is used to determine the level of smartphone addiction level and body discomfort.
Results: A total of 290 subjects (80.7% females and 19.3% males) are involve in this study. Majority of respondents (69.7%) suffer mild smartphone addiction and there is significant association with neck and shoulder discomfort (p<0.05). Respondent’s belief that the discomfort experience were due to prolonged smartphone usage (74.1%). Furthermore, 84.5% of respondents noted that discomfort experienced was relieved when not using smartphone. There is significant differences between between time spent on smartphone with age categories, gender, occupation and smartphone addiction level (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Time spent on smartphone is consistent to smartphone addiction level. A higher level of smartphone addiction will increase the risk in developing upper body discomfort.
Keywords: Smartphone Addiction, upper body, Young Adults.
Introduction: Recreational collegiate and professional level tennis players are at risk of musculo skeletal injuries. Plyometric training enhances balance and body control during movement, which promotes improvement in agility. Aim of this study is to find out the effectiveness of plyometric training on improving agility in tennis player.
Methodology: This study conducted at Madha medical college and hospital, Chennai.Total 30 subjects were selected from population of tennis players by convenience sampling procedure. The samples were divided into two groups with plyometric training cum conventional training and conventional training program alone. The subjects include both genders with age group of 18 to 22 years based on the selection criteria. The training program consists 6 weeks of plyometric training and conventional training. Illinois agility test score and Tennis specific agility test score were used to evaluate the outcome measures.
Result: Dependent t test was used to analyze the difference in effect within the group. Pre and post test scores for plyometric training with conventional training and conventional training alone found significance difference in improvement in agility with p< 0.0001.The mean difference value of plyometric training with conventional training program is 2.5, which is more than the mean difference value of conventional training program 1.58.
Conclusion: The study concluded that plyometric training and conventional training are effective to improve agility, yet plyometric training is more effective to improve agility among tennis players.
Keywords: Tennis players, plyometric training, agilty, Illinois agility test and Tennis specific agility test.
Objectives: Given the severe and chronic problems associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and the limitations of available treatments for hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention, there exists a large public health need for additional interventions. In Avazzia BESTTM (Bio-Electric Stimulation Technology) device, one of the modes has “alpha waves” frequency (7-12 Hz). The beginning of relaxation occurs during this wave length.
Materials and methods: In the study, 4 special school children age 5-12 years with autism were selected. They were given watermelon procedure on an “Alpha” setting (in Pro- SportTM) once daily for a period of 6 weeks. Hyperactivity/impulsivity subscale of the Conner’s’ Parent/Teachers Ratings Scale and ATEC were used prior to beginning of treatment and at the end of six- week period.
Results: After 6 weeks of treatment, the children showed no statistically significant improvements in target symptoms, but mild improvement was noted in their ATEC scores. Parents and teachers both reported mild improvements in restlessness and impulsivity, emotional liability, and hyperactivity.
Conclusion: The children with autism have many problems, so parents and teachers feel that any small improvement is worth it. With a small improvement, they are more manageable in the classroom, and able to benefit from other psychosocial and educational interventions.
Keywords: Autism, Alpha Waves, Pro-SportTM, Hyperactivity
Background of the study: One of the factors leading to non-specific low back pain among University students and staff is prolonged sitting. Exercise therapy is one of the mainstays in the management of non-specific low back pain. One of the most common exercise therapy for non-specific low back pain is the McKenzie method, whereas the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) exercise is seldom been used to treat non-specific low back pain cases. The purpose of the study was to find the effectiveness PNF and McKenzie method on non-specific low back pain among University population.
Methods: A randomized clinical trial involving 36 subjects (students and staffs) from the University population. The subjects were randomly chosen and assigned to three treatment groups: PNF group, McKenzie group and control group (hot pack and educational home exercise sheet) which underwent 12 treatment sessions distributed over three times in a week for four weeks duration. Subjects were measured on pain score using visual analogue scale. Measurement was performed at three points: pre- test, mid-test and post-test. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyse the difference within each group and ANOVA used between the groups in order to find and compare the effectiveness of three treatments.
Result: This study showed that there was significant mean difference between PNF and McKenzie method on pain score (p <0.05) after 4 weeks. Conclusion: The study findings showed that PNF exercise has more effect than McKenzie method on reduction of pain among non-specific low back pain among University population.
Keywords: McKenzie method, Non-specific Low Back Pain, PNF
Background of the study: The core musculature includes the muscles of the trunk and pelvis are responsible for the maintenance of stability of spine and pelvis and help in the generation and transfer of energy from large to small body parts during many sports activities. Objective of the study was to measure the effect of 6 weeks core stability training on speed of running in male cricket players.
Methods: The subjects included based on the selection criteria. The Study consists of 10 male volunteers and they were given core stability training exercises with bridging, Curl up, Side push up (both side) to strengthen the core muscles for 6 weeks. The speed was measured by 4×10 m shuttle run test after 6 weeks of core stability training for the agility. Data collected and checked for pre-post-test timing.
Result: The participants had significant difference in effect after core stability exercises within the group. The result found significant statistical difference in pre-posttest value of 4×10 m shuttle run test for the given samples with P ≤ 0.001.
Conclusion: Six weeks of core stability training can increase speed of running and agility among male cricket players.
Key words: Core strength training, core stability training, 4x10m shuttle run test.
Backgroud and objective of the study: Osteoarthritis is considered to be a common condition that is widely prevalent among the older age groups that could lead to chronic disability. Objective of the study was to investigate efficacy of a foot stepping target matching exercise for subjects having osteoarthritis knee.
Methodology: This was a study with pre-post experimental study design . Twenty subjects of both genders having unilateral and bilateral knee OA patients with age group between 40 to 65 years were selected for this study. Simple random sampling method used to the study conducted at out patient physiotherapy department, A.C.S medical college and hospital, Chennai. Visual analogue scale was uused as measurement tool to measure the outcome of osteo arthritis knee pain.
Result : The study observed that there was a statistical difference in foot stepping target matching exercise on reducing pain, improving propriception, reducing stiffness, and improving physical function between pre test and post test values of treatment groups with P<0.001.
Conclusion: The foot stepping target matching exercise was effective in treating subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Hence the study concluded that foot stepping target matching exercise is beneficial and can be recommended in subjects with osteoarthritis knee to improve their physical function.
Key word: Osteoarthritis knee, foot stepping target matching exercise, Visual Analogue Scale
Background: Sarcopenia is a structural and functional decline in the cells and tissues of all organs resulting in age related decreased skeletal muscle mass and strength in elderly adults. The purpose of this study is to prove that resistance exercise is an extremely effective countermeasure to reduce the severity of the skeletal muscle wasting in elderly sarcopenic individuals especially in the quadriceps muscle. Objective of this study was to identify the efficacy of resisted quadriceps exercise on aging skeletal muscles in sarcopenia patients.
Methodology: This is an experimental study conducted in Friend in Need old age home and Cure ‘n’ Care physiotherapy center. Both men and women with age group between 60-75 years participated in this study. Resisted Quadriceps strengthening exercises, aerobic exercises were given as intervention for this study.
Results: The result shows that resisted quadriceps exercise was effective in treating patients with Sarcopenia.
Conclusion: The conclusion of the study is that quadriceps resistance training can counteract the decline in quadriceps muscle function and loss of muscle mass normally associated in sarcopenia individuals.
Keywords: Quadriceps, resisted exercises, skeletal muscle mass, sarcopenia
Background of the study: Hamstring is a group of muscle essential for flexion of knee and extension of hip.Hence hamstring flexibility is essential for the activities of Daily Living. Hamstring tightness may decrease the output of a person’s activity. The purpose of the study is to find the effectiveness of two PNF stretching techniques (Hold Relax and Contract Relax-Antagonist Contract) on improving hamstring flexibility.
Materials and Methods: Samples are randomly selected from the college students and divided in to two equal groups. Each group consists of 15 samples. Group A treated with hold-relax stretching, Group B treated with contract relax antagonist relax stretching. Samples are positioned in supine lying with hip and knee flexed at 90degree. Straps are used for the stabilization of hip and lower extremity. For each group stretching technique was performed 3 times in a week. The total period of experiment was 6 weeks. At the end of each week, the knee extension was measured with the help of universal goniometer.
Result: Both the group have reported increase in hamstring flexibility. Group-Bwith Contract Relax-Antagonist Contract found more effective in improving hamstring flexibility with significant difference of P<0.001.
Conclusion: This study shows that both PNF hold relax and PNF contract relax antagonist contract stretching is effective in improving hamstring flexibility. However PNF contract relax antagonist contract stretching technique was better than PNF hold relax stretching technique in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility.
Keywords: Hamstring flexibility, PNF-Hold Relax, PNF-Contract Relax Antagonist Contract.
Background and Objective: In spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, spasticity of limbs will result in reduced range of motion of joints and that may limit the functional recovery of the patient. Main objective of the study is to find the effect of myofascial release technique in reduction of spasticity in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy children.
Methods: A random sampling method is used to select 15 patients with diplegic cerebral palsy. The subjects have underwent myofascial Release for reducing spasticity of hamstrings and to thereby improve knee range of motion. The outcomes are measured by the MAS and goniometry for hamstrings spasticity and knee passive range of motion respectively, on both side limbs.
Results: Wilcoxon signed rank test has been used to find the significance of MAS score and PROM between pre and post in the group . Intra group analysis, showed reduction in spasticity and improvement in range of motion (p<0.005).
Conclusion: This study concluded that myofascial Release is effective to reduce spsticity in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy children.
Keywords: Spastic Diplegic Cerebral palsy, Myofascial Release, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS)
Background of the study:The dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of neurological disorders like Stroke has always demanded the need of new interventions in limiting the disability outcome following stroke. Several research work have been conducted with the process still continuing towards limiting the disability till its controlled fully. Aims and Objectives of this study was to find the effectiveness of balance training with deprivation of visual feedback in stroke subjects.
Methodology:Total number of fifteen subjects participated in this study. The duration of the study was four continuous weeks, with five sittings of sixty minutes each per week. Data was collected using Timed Up and Go test and Berg balance scale. The statistical analysis used for the study was paired T- test and Wilcoxons signed rank test.
Result: Subjects with masked vision showed better outcomes on berg balance scale and Timed Up and Go test with P<0.001.
Conclusion: Balance performance and movement can be improved with deprived vision training on stroke subjects.
Key words: Stroke, Deprivation of Visual feedback, Balance, Berg balance scale, Timed Up and Go test.
Background and Objective: Functional recovery and motor control is one of the major causes of concern in stroke patients with performing activities of daily living. Upper limb impairment affects the performance of many activities of daily living. Our major objective of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of the individual and combined effect of Bobath technique and motor relearning program to improve upper limb functional recovery and motor control in stroke patients.
Methods: A random sampling method is used to select patients with Right MCA stroke. Thirty patients were included and randomly divided into three groups by using lottery method, with ten in each group A, B and C. Group A, B and C had underwent MRP, Bobath and combined of these two techniques respectively. The outcomes are measured by the Modified Ashworth Scale(MAS), Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement(STREAM) and Fugal Meyer scale to find the outcome on spasticity, voluntary control and functional recovery of the upper limb in stroke patients.
Results: Intra group analysis was done by Wilcoxon rank test. In intra group analysis, of Group A showed improvement in voluntary control & spasticity with p<0.005 but no significant improvement found in functional activities. Group B & C showed significant reduction in spasticity, improvement in voluntary control & functional recovery with p<0.005.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that individual effect of motor relearning program is more effective than Bobath technique but the combined effect of these two techniques are more effective than the individual effect in the functional recovery of the upper limb in the right MCA stroke patients.
Keywords: MCA, Stroke, Bobath technique, MRP, FMS, STREAM, MAS
Background: Cervical spondylosis is degenerative disorder of cervical spine and is often associated with a sense of cervicogenic dizziness or disequilibrium. . There is dearth of literature regarding physical therapy evaluation and management of patients suffering from cervical spondylosis and presenting with cervicogenic dizziness. We present our experience with physical therapy management of patients suffering with cervical spondylosis and complaining of dizziness of cervical origin with an aim to improve balance and proprioception.
Materials and methods: A total of ten patients ranging in age from 25-50 year, Mean +S.D. (36.8±8.72), clinically diagnosed with cervical spondylosis and presenting/complaining of cervicogenic dizziness were recruited from Out –Patient Department, Pt.B.D.S., U.H.S., Rohtak. Patients were then tested using following four tests namely romberg`s test, vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) autorotation test/Head Thrust Test, hallpik-dix test and functional position test and those responding with positive outcome for various tests were included. Patients were then given exercise therapy treatment for 30 days.
Results: Paired t- test analysis showed that there was highly significant improvement in scores of the four tests namely romberg`s test, vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) autorotation test/Head Thrust Test, hallpik-dix test and functional position test (p<0.01). Comparing mean values of test scores in terms of percentage improvement from baseline there was significant increase.
Conclusion: Physical therapy exercise programme is effective in cervicogenic dizziness, it improves balance and proprioception in patients clinically diagnosed with cervical spondylosis and presenting with cervicogenic dizziness.
Keywords: Cervical spondylosis,cervicogenic dizziness, balance, proprioception
Background and objective: Many studies have been done on stress among educators. Teachers, lecturers, and tutors all over the world has been brought into attention when it comes to stress related issues. Our purpose was to investigate the level of academic stress among pre-service teachers in a teaching education institution in Perak, Malaysia.
Methods: In this study a cross-sectional comparative survey study was conducted on pre-service teachers from a teacher education institution. The variables that was tested and correlated throughout the study are age, gender, and marital status, and medical history, influence of medications, exercise and social lifestyle. Data was collected through questionnaires to find out the outcome. Descriptive data analysis was used to describe the socio-demographic data. Correlation analysis was used to determine the significant relation between the variables. P<0.05 was considered as significant of the study.
Results: Majority of the students, 78.4% represent the severe category of distress according to the Kessler scale. The remaining 13.6% were recorded as being under mild and 7.6% (n=19) under moderate category of distress. Regrettably, less than 1% (n=1) of the pre-service teachers were from the well category. Exercise was found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of severe psychological distress. Simple logistic regressions showed that pre-service teachers who exercised had a significant 91% reduced risk for psychological distress (OR=0.09; 95% CI=0.02, 0.35) compared to those who doesn’t exercise.
Conclusion: At the end of this study, a better understanding on the predisposing factors of academic stress among pre-service teachers was determined and therefore interventions on coping with stress can be made simple. Various physiotherapy interventions on preventive and corrective measures were suggested with reference to the results.
Keywords: Predisposing factors, Academic stress, Pre-service teacher
Background and objective: Non specific occupational related back pain is a common disorder affecting workers. It has multifactorial contributing factors mainly those performing physically demanding task, adopting awkward posture and carry out task is static position for longer period of time. Globally such condition caused serious burden in operation cost and productivity. The aims of study is to evaluate the relationship of sitting posture and occupational related back pain among white collar workers.
Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive types of study. Sitting posture is determined using self – administered close ended questionnaires. The questionnaires was distributed to workers experienced an occupational related back pain for the past 4 months.
Results: A total of 140 respondents involve in this study and had an experience of non specific occupational related back pain. Majority of them is female (50.9%) and work as administration assistance (29.3%). Pain intensity is varies with 75.7% and 17.2% complain of moderate and severe pain respectively. There is no statistically difference (P > 0.05) between sitting posture and occupational related non specific back pain among them.
Conclusion: The sitting posture was assessed through self – administer close ended questionnaires and didn’t reveal their exact sitting posture at work. Relatively, occupational related non specific back pain is high among them. Preventive measures need to be considered in order to empower employees on safety at workplace.
Keywords: White collar workers, sitting posture, occupational related back pain
Background of the study: According to the study done by “Program On The Global Demography Of Aging At Harvard University – August 2016”, India’s aged population (age 60 and older) has dramatically increased and is three times higher than that of the population as a whole. Balance and cognitive issues are common problems that elderly face in their daily life as they can make elderly more prone for falls. Objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of dual task training with mental practice in improving balance and cognition of elderly population.
Methodology: 30 subjects with age > 65 were participated in this study. Subjects were divided in to two equal groups with 15 samples in each group. Group A performed Dual task training, mental practice and conventional balance exercises and Group B performed conventional balance exercises. Both group performed the exercises for four (4) weeks. Outcome was measured before and after the treatment using BBS and MMSE. Analysis were done using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test.
Results: There is significant difference in balance and cognition in elderly population after practicing dual task training along with mental practice.
Conclusion : For the elderly with balance and cognitive
Background: Falls and resulting injuries have become one of the most serious health issues for elderly. Studies have shown the effectiveness of gaze stability exercise and Otago exercise program on balance and fall risk reduction respectively in elderly people. So far their combined effectiveness has not been studied. Objective: To find the combined effect of gaze stability exercise and Otago exercise program on improving balance and reducing fall risk in elderly people.
Method: 30 subjects with age group 65- 75 participated in this study. Subjects were divided into two equal groups with 15 samples in each. Group A performed gaze stability exercises and Otago exercise program along with conventional exercise and Group B performed conventional exercise alone. Both groups performed the exercises for two months. The outcome was measured before and after the treatment using Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon and Mann- Whitney U test.
Result: Based on the statistical analysis, the result of the present study shows that there is a statistically significant difference in balance and fall risk between pre-test and post-test in both experimental and control group(p<0.000). Experimental group shows greater improvement in balance on BBS and reduction in fall risk on DGI than the control group in elderly people.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence about the combined effectiveness of gaze stability exercise and Otago Exercise program in improving balance and reducing fall risk in elderly people.
Keywords: Berg Balance Scale, Dynamic Gait Index, Gaze stability exercises,Otago exercise program
Background and purpose: Neck pain is a communal problem in the computer professionals. Among 59% of WRMSDs (work related musculoskeletal disorder) reported annually in India 30% cases are of neck pain. It is already proven that swiss ball training and pressure biofeedback training are effective for reducing pain, improving muscle strength, and mobility other than conventional exercises. Till now no study had done to compare the effectiveness of swiss ball training v/s pressure biofeedback training on pain, mobility and functional disability in nonspecific neck pain for computer professionals. Objectives of the study: To compare the effects of Swiss ball training v/s pressure biofeedback training on neck pain neck, mobility and functional disability.
Methods: 30 subjects fulfilling the inclusion criteria were divided into two equal groups. Group A underwent swiss ball neck exercises and Group B underwent pressure biofeedback training. Both groups were given chin tuck exercise, ultrasound and ergonomic advises. Interventions were conducted over 6 weeks, three sessions per week, sessions of 20-30 minutes. Outcomes were measured before and after the treatment.
Result: pre-post-test within the group found effective in both groups. However, pressure biofeedback training group shows greater improvement than Swiss ball training group in computer professionals with nonspecific neck pain.
Conclusion: This study concluded that both exercise program are effective in improving pain, mobility and functional ability but pressure biofeedback training was more effective among computer professionals with nonspecific neck pain.
Keywords: Computer professionals; nonspecific neck pain; pressure biofeedback training; Swiss ball exercise; pain; mobility; functional disability
Background: Impaired sensations associated with PN in type 2 Diabetes, are thought to cause balance impairments that can increase the incidence of no: of falls and progressive deterioration of physical function. MS Exercises that have proved to improve balance are thought to be more effective in improving physical function and reducing no of falls. Objectives of the study was to determine the effect of MS Exercises in improving physical function and in reducing no: of falls.
Methods: Thirty patients diagnosed as type 2 DPN were enrolled, and subdivided into experimental group (n=15) and control group (n=15).The experimental group practiced MS balance exercises and Control group practiced balance exercises for 30 minutes, thrice a week, over 6 weeks. Outcome measures used were Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) to assess physical function and ‘Timed Up and Go’ (TUG) test for assessing no: falls. The statistical methods used were Wilcoxen Signed Rank Test and Mann whiteny U Test.
Result: Based on the statistical analysis, the result showed that there was statistically significant difference in improving physical function and reducing no: of falls between pre-test and post-test values of both groups. Experimental group showed greater improvement in physical function while measuring with LEFS and reduction in no: of falls while measuring with TUGT than control group in subjects with Type 2 DN.
Conclusion: The clinical observation suggests that the MS Exercises is an effective intervention in improving physical function and reducing no: of falls in subjects with type 2 DN.
Keywords: Diabetes, Diabetic Neuropathy, Multisensory exercise, Physical function
Background and objective: Manual physical therapy and low-intensity cycle ergometry has strong theoretical basis in treatment and prevention of OA Knee. Physical therapy consists of manual therapy to knee, combined with range of motion and strengthening exercises. Recent advances has shown that cycle ergometry is beneficial in OA knee. Stationary cycling did not increase knee pain in patients with OA knee. The purpose of this study is to find out the effectiveness of manual physical therapy and Low intensity cycle ergometry in OA knee.
Methdology: 30 subjects with osteoarthritis knee were recruited and divided into groups A and B with 15 subjects in each group after signing an informed consent. Pre test was conducted on “WOMAC” for pain, stiffness and physical function and “Six minute walk test” for functional exercise capacity on both Groups. After a brief demonstration, Group A subjects were subjected to manual physical therapy, low intensity cycle ergometry and supervised exercise program for a period of 4 weeks, 2 sessions per week. After a brief demonstration, Group B subjects were subjected to supervised exercise program for a period of 4 weeks, 2 sessions per week. Post test was conducted on “WOMAC” for pain, stiffness and physical function and “Six minute walk test” for functional exercise capacity on both Groups.
Result: Based on the statistical analysis, the result of the present study shows that there is statistically significant difference in pain, stiffness, physical function and functional exercise capacity between pre-test and post-test in both experimental and control group.
Conclusion: Manual physical therapy and low intensity cycle ergometry is effective in improving pain, stiffness, physical function and functional exercise capacity in OA Knee.
Keywords: Osteoarthritis knee, manual physical therapy, low intensity bicycle ergometry, pain, stiffness, functional exercise capacity, womac, 6 min walk test.
Background: Hamstrings muscles are large, long muscle located on back of the thigh which acts upon two joints, the hip and knee. The functions of the hamstring muscles are knee flexion and hip extension. Lack of hamstring flexibility and strength is the most important characteristic of hamstring injuries in athlete’s. Purpose of this study was to investigate compare the effectiveness of Muscle Energy techniques and eccentric training to improve Hamstring muscle performance and flexibility tightness in college male athletes.
Methods: sixty subjects with age group 18-25 were recruited in this study.The subjects were divided into two groups Group A (Experimental1) and Group B (Experimental2). Group A underwent muscle energy technique and Conventional treatment, Group B underwent eccentric training and Conventional treatment. Interventions were conducted over a period of 5 days. All subjects were assessed for pain flexibility using hand active knee extension test and performance using single leg hop test before and after intervention period.
Results: The data was analyzed through paired test for comparing pre and posttest values of the active knee extension and single leg hop within both group and Independent t test for comparison of data between the two groups. Results of this study show that Muscle Energy techniques and eccentric training improves Hamstring muscle flexibility and performance in college male athlete’s.
Conclusion: Muscle energy technique is more effective than eccentric training in improving hamstring muscle tightness and performance in college male athletes.
Keywords: Muscle Energy Techniques, Eccentric training, Active knee extension test, Single hope length test
Background: Recurrent musculoskeletal pain has an apparent repercussion on health care costs, employment productivity and quality of life. Lateral epicondylalgia, is a common recurrent musculoskeletal complaint that is often confronted by physical therapists. Pain, reduced grip strength and functional disability are main problems seen in chronic lateral epicondylalgia patients (CLE). The complexity in pathophysiology of CLE is reflected by the lack of consensus on management and remains a therapeutic challenge. Purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement and myofascial release technique on pain, pain free grip strength and functional disability in recurrent chronic lateral epicondylalgia patients.
Methods: Thirty subjects within age group 25-50 fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A (Experimental) and Group B (Control). Group A underwent Mulligan’s Mobilization with movement, myofascial release technique and Conventional treatment, Group B underwent Conventional treatment only. Interventions were conducted over a period of 4 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 1 session per day. All subjects were assessed for pain free grip strength using hand dynamometer, functional disability using Patient rated tennis elbow evaluation questionnaire and pressure pain threshold using pressure algometer before and after intervention.
Results: Mulligan’s MWM combined with myfascial release technique and conservative treatment is more effective in treating recurrent chronic lateral epicondylalgia.
Conclusion: This study asserts a multimodal treatment approach for the management of recurrent chronic lateral epicondylalgia by relieving myofascial, articular and nervous system impairments.
Keywords: Chronic lateral epicondylalgia; Mulligan’s mobilization with movement; Myofascial release technique; Pressure pain threshold; Pain free grip strength.
Background: Shoulder impingement syndrome is the common condition of the shoulder which results in considerable morbidity and financial cost in the healthcare industry. Pain, reduced strength and disability are the main problems seen in SIS. Few studies are available for treating patients with SIS using kinesio taping in general population. Most similar studies were conducted on specific population. Hence a need arise to rule out the usefulness of addition of kinesio taping to conventional exercise for SIS patients with forward head posture. Objective of the study was to find out the effect of kinesio taping in improving pain, disability and forward head posture in patients with SIS.
Methods: 30 subjects were recruited in this study after obtaining an informed consent and divided into two groups; Group (A) (Experimental) and Group(B) (Control). Group A underwent kinesio taping, conventional exercise and Group B underwent conventional exercises. Interventions were conducted over 1 week, KT application 2 times/week and conventional exercise 3 times daily. All subjects were assessed for pain, disability and forward head posture using VAS, DASH questionnaire and CVA using Kinovea software before and after intervention period.
Result: There is significance difference between pain, disability and forward head posture after the application of kinesio taping in patients with SIS. Analysis was done using Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann Whitney U test.
Conclusion: This study concluded that kinesio taping is effective for improving pain, disability and forward head posture in patients with SIS.
Keywords: Disability, Forward head posture, Kinesio tape, Kinovea software, Subacromial impingement.
Background and objective: Parkinson’s disease is a condition in which balance problem is one of the debilitating sign which is not responsive to treatment with medication. Several researches that examined the effect of LSVT big have recommended benefits relevant to a variety of outcomes. Nonetheless, very little consensus reviews have synthesized research findings across the spectrum of balance. The objective of the study is to find the effectiveness of LSVT BIG exercise to improve balance in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s patients.
Methods: 30 patients with idiopathic PD fulfilling the inclusion criteria were recruited after obtaining an informed consent. The subjects were divided into two groups i.e., experimental and control group. Pre & Posttest measures were taken using Berg Balance Scale. The experimental group subjects received LSVT BIG training & conventional exercises and control group received conventional group of balance exercises. The intervention spanned for 1 hour session, 4 consecutive days a week for 4 weeks.
Result: Both the experimental and control group showed improvement in balance performance after receiving the intervention. But the experimental group showed greater improvement (P=0.005) as compared to the control group with constant practice in the BIG training of Parkinson’s patients as determined by the Berg Balance scale.
Conclusion: The study documented the impact of LSVT Big training, on balance parameter. The study postulates that it is powerful in its ability to improve balance in mild to moderate Parkinson’s patients.
Keywords: Lee Silvermann Voice Treatment (LSVT) Big exercise; Parkinson’s disease; Balance; Berg Balance scale; Neurorehabilitation.
Background and purpose: Patello femoral pain Syndrome is an over use injury and one of the commonest problems seen in adolescents who are physically active. Till date no study has been done comparing the effect of adding specific hip strengthening exercises (gluteus medius, gluteus maximus & lateral rotators) over conventional exercises in subjects with Patello femoral Pain Syndrome. The objective of the study is to compare the effects of hip Strengthening exercises and Conventional Knee exercise among female sprinters with Patello femoral pain syndrome.
Methods: 30 subjects with age group 17-22 were participated in this study. Subjects were divided in to two equal groups with 15 samples in each group. Group A performed specific weight bearing hip strengthening exercises and Group B performed Hip strengthening exercise with resistance along with conventional knee exercise. Both group performed the exercises for four(4) weeks. Outcome was messured before and after the treatment.
Result: Pre-post-test within the group found significantely effective on both groups. Comparative study found that there is significant difference on effect between the groups with P-value 0.0001. Group B found more effective compared to Group-A with hip strengthening resistance exercise and conventional exercise over hip strengthening exercise alone.
Conclusion: This study concluded that both exercise program are effective in reduction of pain, improvement of muscle strength and functional staus, but combined exercise program was more effective among female sprinters with Patello femoral pain syndrome.
Keywords: Patello-femoral Pain syndrome (PFPS), Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS), Manual Muscle Testing (MMT), Conventional exercise.
Background Low back pain (LBP) has been recognized as a common condition that affects public health in adults and adolescents. Low back pain is one of the commonest musculoskeletal problems in modern society and most highly prevalent. In India nearly 60% of the population has significant low back pain at some point in life. Objective of the study were to compare the effects of pilates and conventional core stabilization exercise with moist hot pack in low back pain.
Methods: 30 subjects with age group 18-25 were participated in this study. Subjects were divided in to two equal groups with 15 samples in each group. Group A performed the hundred, side bend, Swan rising pilate and Group B quadruped exercise, curl ups, Supine bridge. Both group performed the exercises for four(4) weeks. Outcome was messured before and after the treatment.
Result: Pre-post-test within both groups found significantely effective on reducing pain and improves functional status but Group-B with conventional core stabilization showed better improvement in reduction in pain than Group-A with the pilates exercise.
Conclusion: Conventional core stabilization exercises with moist hot pack can be used for better pain relief and faster recovery in low back pain as it helps in better recruitment of the diaphragm as a core muscles.
Keywords: Pilates,conventional core stabilization, moist hot pack ,low back pain.
Background and purpose: The purpose of the study is effects of cryotherapy on the intrinsic muscle strength of the hand using modified sphygmomanometer.Therapeutic use of ice has clinical applications both in rehabilitation and other areas of medicine. Cryotherapy has been show to decrease increase and not impact torque production which requies isometric strength of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of hand. Till date few studies have been conducted to see the carry over effect of cryotherapy on intrinsic muscle. The objective of the study was to find out the effectiveness of cryotherapy on intrinsic muscle strength using modified sphygmomanometer.
Methodology: 50 subjects with age group 17-23 were participated in this study. This study clinically implied to find out the immediate and carry over effect of cryotherapy on intrinsic muscle strength of hand using modified sphygmomanometer.
Result: There is significant increase in intrinsic muscle strength immediately after the cryotherapy application. There is significant decrease in intrinsic muscle strength after 15-30 minutes of ice immersion. After 30-45 minutes it continuously decreased of hand strength.
Conclusion: The study concluded that muscle strength is increased at immediately after immersion of 100-150 cold water.
Keywords: Cryotherapy, Modified Sphygmomanometer, Muscle Strength, Intrinsic Muscles.
Background and purpose: Gloves are often necessary and used by the medical professionals, mechanics, cooks and in packing industries. The gloves provides protection from infections, physical harms. Some study stated that there is no differences found in grip strength and dexterity while wearing gloves. But other study stated that the type and material of glove is made up of can affects amount of force needed to grip an object. The present study is aimed when to wear the gloves and when not to wear the gloves in their work place. Objective of the study was to determine whether the use of gloves can affect the coordination of the hand, in a healthy population compared with no gloves using Jebsen hand function test(JHFT).
Method: The study included fifty healthy subjects ranging between 18 to 25 years of age. Jebsen hand function test were used to observe the coordination and function of the hand with no glove and with different types of gloves.
Result: The result showed there is better coordination found in use of surgical rubber gloves.
Conclusion: This study concluded that surgical rubber glove shows better coordination compared with cotton knitted glove, plastic glove and no glove.
Keywords: Gloves, dexterity, coordination, Jebsen hand function test (JHFT )
Background and purpose: To analyze the effect of TENS & Electric Muscle Stimulator when combined with passive stretching on spasticity of biceps brachii muscle in stroke patients.
Method: 40 male & female subjects with stroke aged in between age 50-65 years are included in study on basis of inclusion criteria were conveniently assigned with 20 subjects in each group. Group A received TENS with passive stretching & Group B received Electric Muscle Stimulator with passive stretching. After assessment & evaluation of patients on day 1, MAS was recorded. Treatment was given 30 min. daily for 5 days a week for 6 weeks.
Result: The data was analyzed through Wilcoxon signed rank test for comparing the pre and post values of MAS with in both the groups and Mann Whitney Test for comparison of data between the two groups. Results of this study show that the Electric Muscle Stimulator when combined with passive stretching are much more effective in reducing spasticity of biceps brachii muscle in stroke patients.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that both the intervention programs are effective in improving spasticity of biceps brachii muscle of stroke patients but Electric Muscle Stimulator with passive stretching is more beneficiary for the patients.
Keywords: Spasticity, Stroke, TENS, Electric Muscle Stimulator, Passive Stretching, Modified Ashwarth Scale.
Background and Objectives: Reduction of spasticity is helpful for improving the functional activities and this can be achieved by various techniques. Biceps spasticity is the most common disability in upper limb of a hemiplegic patient, which hinders the ROM at elbow and thus affecting the function of the upper limb as a whole. Biceps spasticity can be reduced effectively by crossed reciprocal inhibition technique. The purpose of this study is to find out the efficacy of crossed reciprocal inhibition in reducing the spasticity in biceps brachi.
Methods: Thirty hemiplegic patients were randomly assigned into experimental group that received crossed reciprocal inhibition (n=15) and the control group that received conventional therapy (n=15). Both groups received 30 minutes of either one of the training for 15 days. Treatment outcomes were assessed and compared by measuring the spasticity reduction with the help of Modified Ashworth scale and Goniometry for ROM at Elbow.
Results: After 15 days of treatment period, the experimental group patients scored significantly higher improvements than the conventional group for spasticity reduction as per the statistical analysis (P=0.05), and ROM at elbow has also showed considerable improvement. Conclusion: Crossed reciprocal inhibition technique is comparatively more efficient in reducing biceps spasticity in hemiplegics over conventional techniques.
Keywords: Crossed reciprocal inhibition, Hemiplegia, Modified Ashworth Scale, Spasticity.
Background and objectives: Nocturnal enuresis or Bed wetting is a common problem in children. It is defined as the unintentional passage of urine during sleep. Bed wetting is normal till the age of 4 yrs, continue of bedwetting over the age is due to either physical or psychological factors. Researchers found that globally around 15 % of children are suffering with it. Various treatment strategies are there to manage bedwetting; still there is no identified solution for it. The purpose of the study is to find out the effect of yoga on reduction of bed wetting frequency in children.
Methods: 10 children with nocturnal enuresis were selected following a detailed description about the study. Structured yoga programme was taught to the children & their parents. Yoga classes were conducted on alternative days for 4 weeks. Voiding dairy was given to every mother and asked them to note down the frequency of nocturnal enuresis. Following the 4 weeks of yogic practice the voiding dairy reports were collected from the mother and analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Result: The result of the study shows that there was significant improvement in the urinary control in children after structured yoga programme.
Conclusion: This study concluded that the yoga plays a vital role in nocturnal enuresis as well as it also improves the moral boost in children.
Keywords: Yoga, Bed wetting, Voiding diary, Nocturnal enuresis
Background and objectives:This study focused on exploring the relationship between handgrip strength and Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) among cardiac disease patients.
Methods:This is a cross-sectional study. The study conducted at KPJ Damansara Specialist Hospital. Subjects were recruited based on selection criteria as set by the study protocol involved 50 subjects and it was carried out in among conservative management cardiac patients. Main outcome measures was to measure the handgrip strength using Jamar hand dynamometer and the LVEF was assessed by echocardiography. Spearman-rank correlation and simple linear regression analysis were used to analyse the study results.
Results:There was a relationship found between bilateral handgrip strength and LVEF among cardiac patients with dominant handgrip strength showed higher correlation value, ρ= 0.375 (p< 0.05) as compared to the non-dominant handgrip strength ρ= 0.334 (p<0.05). However, there was no significant relationship found between dominant and non-dominant handgrip strength and LVEF among male subject with ρ=0.102 (p0.546) and ρ0.155 (p0.360). There were also non-significant relationship between non-dominant handgrip strength and LVEF among female subject ρ=0.348 (p0.203) but significant positive relationship for dominant handgrip strength with LVEF ρ=0.500 (p0.030). Simple linear regression analysis demonstrated an interaction between non-dominant handgrip strength and LVEF (R²=.081, p <0.05) with small effect size.
Conclusion:The correlation analysis of the present study demonstrated relationship between bilateral handgrip strength with ventricular function. The subgroup analysis between the genders showed there was significant relationship found between dominant handgrip strength and LVEF among female subject only. Therefore, handgrip strength able provides valid information about ventricular function as the variables were related among female individuals with cardiac disease.
Keywords:Handgrip strength, Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac disease.
Back ground and objectives: Evidences on the impact of Core Stability Training (CST) on Sports Functional Performances (SFP) have demonstrated some positive correlation between them in few sports, however evidences lack to prove causal relationship between them, especially among normal subjects. This study attempts to investigate the effect of ‘CST’ on ‘SFP’ and Dynamic Balance among healthy undergraduate college students.
Methods:50 Healthy undergraduate college students were selected after initial screening process. They were randomly allocated to either core stability Training Group (TG) or Control Group (CG). Subjects in TG underwent 8-weeks of core stability training, whereas the subjects in CG were given no intervention and asked to carry out their usual activities. All the subjects underwent a pre and post intervention measurements for their level of sports functional performances such as agility running, distance running, ball throwing, vertical jumping, which were measured using ‘T-test’, ’40-Yard dash test’, ‘Medicine ball throw test’ ‘Vertical jump height test’ respectively and dynamic balance was measured using YBT Functional Goniometer.
Results: Immediately after the 8-weeks of core stability training, sports functional performances such as ability to T- agility running (p=0.022), 40-Yard running (p=0.006), vertical jump height (p=0.030), have improved significantly in Training Group compared to Control Group, except medicine ball throw (p=0.348) and dynamic balance (p=0.200).
Conclusion:8-weeks of core stability training in healthy undergraduate college students has resulted in improved lower limb sports functional performances . This causal relationship can provide reasonable support in recommending core stability training in sports performance enhancement training programmes for normal subjects.
Keywords:Core Stability Training, Sports Functional Performances, Y Balance Test, Undergraduate College Students.
Back ground and objectives:Work activities in shipping port are known to be a physically demanding task. The risk of getting occupational related back pain among them is relatively high. Currently, there is limited data that can be used to determine the status of occupational related back pain among them in local setting. The aim of study is to evaluate the prevalence of occupational related back pain among shipping port workers.
Methods:This is a cross sectional descriptive type of study. The respondents were shipping port workers receiving physiotherapy treatment for their occupational related back pain at the shipping medical center. A set of questionnaire were distributed to gather their demographic data and back pain pain intensity.
Results:A total of 81 respondent eligible to this study with mean age of is 34.9 (±8.78), maximum pain intensity recorded was 5/10. Majority (n=59) of respondent seeking physiotherapy treatment were engaged with crane maneuver. The activity that increase the incidence of back pain is driving heavy vehicle (n=27) and adopting prolong trunk bending (n=20). There is no statistically significant (p>0.005) association between pain intensity, age, body mass index (BMI) and waist measurement.
Conclusion:This study didn’t investigate employees knowledge and their working habit at workplace. Such factors cannot be denied and should be investigated to determine its relationship with occupational related back pain. Subsequently, a constructive preventive measures should be tailored accordingly in order to curb occupational related back pain among shipping port workers.
Keywords:Shipping port workers, occupational related back pain, physiotherapy treatment.
Back ground and objectives: Organophosphates (OP) are used as insecticides in agricultural and domestic settings throughout the world. Acute organophosporous (OP) pesticide self- poisoning is a major global problem. Early recognition of respiratory failure, prompt endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are life- saving measures in severe OP poisoning. Patients with OP poisoning may have respiratory failure for many reasons, including aspiration of gastric contents, excessive secretions, pneumonia and septicemia complicating adult respiratory distress syndrome and thereby physical therapy may be indicated for patients in the intensive care setting.
Methods: A total of twenty patients ranging in age from 25-45 years, mechanically ventilated for respiratory muscle paralysis, due to organophosporous poisoning, recruited from various ICU’s were included in the study. Effects of physiotherapy treatment were studied on static lung compliance (CST), oxygenation ratio (PaO2: FiO2 ratio) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2). Measurements of dependent variables were recorded (PRE) before commencement of treatment, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after treatment.
Results: Analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant improvement in CST mean values (p<0.01) and significant improvement in PaCO2 mean values (p<0.05). Comparing mean values with critical difference, significant critical difference was observed between mean values at PRE and Post-30, and between PRE and Post-60 time intervals (p<0.05) for CST, PaO2:FiO2 ratio and PaCO2, respectively.
Conclusion:Respiratory rehabilitation of patients with organophosporous poisoning can be effectively achieved with employment of various physiotherapeutic techniques including manual hyperinflation and bronchial hygiene therapy.
Keywords:Manual hyperinflation, organophosphorous poisoning, static lung compliance, mechanical ventilation.
Back ground and objectives: Post-thoracic surgery sessions are common among the patients and develops pulmonary complications such as atletasis, retention of sputum, infections, pleural effusion, and most likely respiratory failure. After Post-thoracic surgery the patients may present with marked reduction in the chest expansion, and it may leads to reduction in the pulmonary function. This study aims to improve the chest expansion and pulmonary function by an intervention using selected physical exercise programme for thorax.
Methods: 30 post-thoracic surgery patients selected for this study. The subjects in both groups received informative leaflet reinforcing the educational program.The experimental group had performed selected physical exercise program for thorax for 6 days after thoracic surgery with duration of 30 minutes ,twice a day along with breathing exercises. The control group had performed breathing exercise for 30 minutes and session for 6 days after thoracic surgery. The pre and post test assessment, which included chest expansion measurement and pulmonary function test values were noted.
Results:Both groups have shown improvement after treatment .But when the score of the both groups compared to find out the effectiveness of experimental groups ,there was significant change in the group of additional of post Isometric relaxation technique over the control group on improving chest expansion and pulmonary functions.
Conclusion:The study findings indicated that additional Post Isometric Relaxation technique to the patients helped to improve the chest expansion & pulmonary function.However before implementing on to clinical practice, this results needs to be reviewed with few more detailed clinical trial.
Key Words: Post Isometric Relaxation, Chest Expansion Measurement, Forced Vital Capacity, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second.
Background and objectives: Ankle Sprain is one of the major cause of disability in professional volleyball players, which affects on their performance to a great extent, and a history of ankle sprain make the players more susceptible to recurrence of ankle sprain. Objectives of this study was to find out the effectiveness and to compare the effectiveness of the proprioceptive training and technical training immediately after the end of the treatment and after three months in prevention of recurrence of ankle sprain among volleyballers.
Methods: 30 subjects with previous history of grade I or grade II ankle sprain, within one year were selected for the study. They were divided into two groups equally,15 in each group A and group B. Group A received five minutes of warm-up, 20 minutes of unilateral balance board training . Group B received five minutes of warm-up, 20 minutes of unilateral vertical jumps.
Results: Pre and post data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon’s sign rank test, paired ‘t’ test. Intra group analysis showed that both groups have shown significant improvement after treatment. In, inter group analysis, the post scores of both groups were compare to find out the effectiveness of one training over other, there was no remarkable difference between the proprioceptive training and technical training.
Conclusion: The study concluded that proprioceptive and technical training can be an effective treatment to prevent recurrence of ankle sprain in subjects with previous history of grade I or grade II ankle sprain.
Keywords: Ankle Sprain, Single Leg Balance test, Balance Board, Vertical Jumps, Visual Analogue Scale.
Background and Objectives: Functional recovery is one of the major causes of concern in stroke subjects with performing activities of daily living. Upper limb impairment affects the performance of many activities of daily living. Our major objective of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of the individual and combined effect of motor relearning programme and Thermal stimulation to improve upper limb motor function.
Methods: A random sampling method is used to select subjects with right MCA stroke. Thirty subjects were included and randomly divided into three groups by using lottery method, with ten in each group A, B and C. Group A, B and C had underwent a MRP,Thermal Stimulation and combination of these two techniques respectively. The outcomes are measured by the MMAS, and STREAM scale.
Results: Analysis of variance has been used to find the significance of study parameters between different groups. Paired t’ test has been used to find the significance of the study within each group. According to Results Group A shows better improvement than group B and It shows that upper limb motor function improved significantly higher in Group C (P<0.001**) when compared to Group A and Group B in MMAS and STREAM scale evaluation.
Conclusion: The present study indicates that physiotherapy treatment showed that the use of individual effect of motor relearning programme is more effective than Thermal Stimulation technique but the combined effect of these two techniques is more effective than the individual effect can bring out significant changes in the upper limb motor function of MCA Stroke subjects.
Keywords: Stroke, Motor Relearning Progrm,Thermal Stimulation, Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM), Modified Motor Assessment Scalele (MMAS).
Purpose of the study: To further understand the balance of low vision with myopia and hyperopia because they have the tendency to wear the spectacles for their own purpose like reading or while performing few activities. So this study provide evidence to visualize the balance problems even after removing spectacles and this result would be beneficial for future interventions focused on reducing falls in this population.
Methodology: Type of the study is descriptive and observational study. Individuals between 20-40yrs were assessed with low vision (Hyperopia and Myopia) and normal vision using Berg’s balance scale. Materials used were Measuring scale, two standard chairs (one with arm rest and one without arm rest), Foot stool, Stop watch.
Result: There is co-relation between static and dynamic balance in individuals with low vision (Significant difference i.e., p<0.05 at 90% confidence interval level).
Conclusion: This study concluded that the static and dynamic balance was affected in individuals with low vision using berg’s balance scale.
Keywords: Balance: Low vision (Hyperopia, Myopia), Normal vision, Berg’s balance scale.
Aims and objectives of the study: The aim of this study was to establish an effective scoring method for evaluation of functional outcomes and to measure the changes in functional ability among Parkinson patients. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of outcome measurement of Goal Attainment Scaling in Parkinson patients with gait abnormalities and also to establish a standardized method to detect the changes in function of the patients.
Methodology: The design of the study was a prospective quasi experimental study. This study conducted for three months in a home based physiotherapy care for Parkinson’s patients with gait abnormalities. Twenty Parkinson patients were participated in this study. The therapeutic goals of individual were established in consultation with the patients and their care givers. The weightage for the importance of each goal was determined and entered into a tabulator and baseline GAS scores calculated along with Dynamic Gait index scores and Timed Up and Go Scores. At the appointed review date the levels achieved was determined by the patients and the team.
Results: The Goal Attainment Scores for the patients before and after treatment for 3 months were statistically analysed with TUG and DGI scores and they showed a significant improvement in their functional status, which is evident from the unpaired t test with p value 0.0001.
Conclusion: The study reinforced the importance of Goal Attainment Scaling as a versatile tool to be used to evaluate the changes in function as rehabilitation of Parkinson patients in addition to providing a quantitative measure of the service outcomes.
Keywords: Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), Parkinson diseases, Dynamic Gait index scores, Timed Up and Go Scores.
Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to find the comparative effect of crushed ice and elasto gel cold wrap treatments on ankle pain and disability among acute ankle sprain patients.
Methodology: This was a comparative study conducted at Radial orthopedic clinic, Chennai. This study included both male and female subjects with acute ankle sprain. 20 acute ankle sprain patients were taken as subjects and they were divided into two groups, Group A and Group B with 10 subjects in each group. Group A and Group B were applied with elasto gel and crushed ice respectively. Once the application was finished in the clinic all the patients were asked to apply ice in home for every 2 hours. This was done in 3 consecutive days. VAS scale and Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) were used as measurement tools to find the outcome of disability and pain of ankle joint.
Result: There is a significant mean difference (VAS: 2.4 < 4.46), (FADI: 30.060 < 32.750) found between the elasto gel cold wrap and crushed ice application on pain and disability among the acute ankle sprain patients.
Conclusion: The study concluded that elasto gel cold wrap is more effective than crushed ice on treatment of patients with acute ankle sprain.
Keywords: Crushed ice, elasto gel cold wrap, Visual Analogue scale (VAS), Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI).
Back ground of the study: Core muscle activation during Swiss ball and traditional abdominal exercise, were done priory in some studies. A study of core stability and athletic Performance was described in other studies. The aim of this study is to find out the effectiveness of core muscle strengthening for basketball players by using the traditional core exercises and Swiss ball exercises to improve their performance level.
Methodology: A total of 30 male subjects were divided into two groups A and B, selected for this study. Among them in group ‘A’ assigned to follow the traditional method and in other group ‘B’ were to follow the Swiss ball exercises, in which both the groups were to concentrate on core strengthening program. The exercises included 10 repetition, 3 to 4 set, everyday for 5 weeks program, along with their routine warm ups and stretching. Statistical tool used in this study is t-test.
Results: The pre and post test values of mean table values shows that group B exercises DLLT, t-test for swiss ball exercises having better result than DLLT for traditional core exercises and t-test for traditional core exercises in group A.
Conclusion: The result of this comparative study indicates that Swiss ball core exercises are more beneficial than traditional core exercises among basketball players. Overall this study show that core strengthening and agility training method are improving not only the strength and agility but also improves the performance level among basketball players.
Keywords: Core muscle, Swiss ball exercises, traditional exercises, Inclinometer, Double leg lowering test (DLLT).
Back Ground of the Study: The slowing of nerve conduction is commonly a desired effect of cryotherapy, the use of cryotherapy in DOMS (delayed onset of muscle soreness) remains questionable. The aim of this study was to present data on DOMS induced position sense of healthy ankle after cryotherapy to clarify the effectiveness and safety of this therapy. Delayed onset of muscle soreness is defined as the sensation of discomfort or pain in the skeletal muscles following physical activity, usually eccentric to which an individual is not accustomed. Although muscle soreness usually occurs on less physically trained individuals, most people including athletes can experience this soreness.
Methodology: The subjects were allocated in to two groups, 10 in each group. After inducing DOMS, subjects in group A were assessed for joint position sense every day for 3 consecutive days and subjects in group B were given cryotherapy with elastogel cold wrap and assessed for the same as of group A. Mean difference between groups of pre and post test scores were analysed to find the outcome.
Result: This study found that there is a significant difference in mean values of scores in joint position sense when compaired between the group A and B after applying elasto-gel cold wrap.
Conclusion: This study concluded that elasto gel cold wrap application is more effective after DOMS, which improves the joint position sense thereby decreasing the undue effect of DOMS.
Keywords: Delayed onset of muscle soreness, joint position sense, elasto-gel cold wrap.
Background and Objectives: A high prevalence of non-specific neck or shoulder pain exists among university students. A few studies had been conducted in Malaysia to study the prevalence and possible risk factors associated with non-specific neck pain among college students. The purposes of this study were to study the prevalence, the anatomical locations and disability grading of myofascial trigger points in non-specific neck or shoulder pain among university students.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Subjects were selected according to the screening questionnaires. Eligible subjects were examined. Disability levels of the subjects were graded using Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI). MTrPs palpations were done on 6 anatomical locations to locate MTrPs. Flat palpation technique and pincer palpation techniques were used.
Results: Among 350 participants, 59.7% participants reported having neck or shoulder pain. Out of 208 participants, 51% participants were having MTrPs with non-specific neck or shoulder pain. In general, both left and right upper trapezius showed the highest percentage of MTrPs which are 94.79% (n=91) respectively, followed by right neck extensors72.97% (n=70) and both left and right levator scapulae63.54 %( n=61). According to disability grading of NDI and SPADI, most subjects showed low levels of associated disability.
Conclusions: A high prevalence (51%) of MTrPs with non-specific neck or shoulder pain existed among university students. Upper trapezius, neck extensor and levator scapulae were found to be the muscles that prone to develop MTrPs. Majority of the participants (62.5%) fell under the category of mild disability.
Keywords: Prevalence, Myofascial Trigger Points, Non-specific neck or shoulder pain
Aim of the Article: The propose of this article is to bring the attention towards a method to overcome the barriers of lifestyle diseases .This article discuss about the ways and means to defend the lifestyle diseases and to provide a tool to tackle this threat.
Methods: The information on life style related to health problems collected from different medical journals. Life style of a person or a society is absolutely playing a vital role in deciding the health, recovery and quality of life of them. So some lifestyle changes improve fitness and quality of life and decreases the risk of many different diseases or disorders.
Result: This article reveals the components, threats and challenges for leading a healthy/positive life style. So we can conclude that the one who is leading a healthy life style is the one who is leading a positive life style. The article describes the important to have positive healthy life style to overcome the challenges of lifestyle disease.
Conclusion: Contemporary life style in the country have resulted in may new generation daises in the society and most of them are due to an imbalanced lifestyle .The article can invite the attention to a way of life change to tackle the lifestyle diseases.
Keywords: Lifestyle diseases, quality of life, threats and challenges of life.
Background and Objective:Myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in trapezius is common problem giving rise to characteristic-referred pain and motor dysfunction. Various techniques are widely used for treating the myofascial trigger point like Ischemic compression(IC), Hold relax (HR), positional release therapy, etc. The purpose of the study to compare the effect between Hold Relax versus Ischemic Compression techniques on pain, pressure pain threshold (PPT) and cervical lateral flexion range of motion (CROM) for subjects with upper trapezius myofascial trigger point.
Methods: An experimental study design, 40 subjects with Chronic upper trapezius MTrP2 were randomized into two groups: HR group (n=20), and IC group (n=20). Subjects in HR group received Hold relax technique and Subjects in IC group received ischemic compression on Upper Trapezius TrP2, both the groups subjects received the technique for five times per session for six sessions per week for two weeks.
Results: Analysis within the groups using paired‘t’ test as a parametric and Wilcoxon signed rank test as a non-parametric test, there was a statistically significant improvements in means of VAS, PPT and cervical lateral flexion range of motion (ROM).
Conclusion: The study concluded that the Hold relax technique and ischemic compression technique found statistically and clinically significant effect on improving pain, pressure pain threshold and cervical lateral flexion range of motion for subjects with Upper trapezius myofascial trigger point (TrP2). The ischemic compression techniques shown to have greater percentage of improvement in improving pain and pressure pain threshold than Hold relax technique.
Key words: Myofascial trigger point, Hold relax technique, ischemic compression technique, myofascial trigger point pressure release technique, pressure pain threshold, Trapezius, Pressure algometer.
Background and Objective: Forward staircase climbing and backward staircase climbing training, individually have found to be effective in cardiorespiratory parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate in subjects with hypertension. The purpose of this study was to find the comparative effect of forward staircase climbing versus backward staircase climbing training on cardio respiratory parameters for subjects with hypertension.
Methods: An experimental study design, 40 subjects with hypertension were randomized into 20 subjects each group; forward staircase climbing group and backward staircase climbing group. Forward staircase climbing group received forward staircase training while backward staircase climbing group received backward staircase training for 4 weeks. Outcome measures such as heart rate, blood pressure were measured before and after four weeks of training.
Results: Analysis of means within the groups found that there is statistically significant improvement in means of blood pressure and heart rate in forward stair climbing and in backward stair climbing groups. When post-intervention means were compared between the groups there was no statistically significant difference in means of heart rate and blood pressure.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that the forward staircase climbing and backward staircase climbing training found significantly effective in improvement of cardiorespiratory parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate for subjects with hypertension. However, forward stair climbing shown to have greater percentage of improvement on cardiorespiratory parameters than backward stair climbing technique.
Key words: Hypertension, Heart rate, Blood pressure, Harvard 3 minute step test, forward staircase climbing, backward staircase climbing.
Aims and Objectives: The term dysfunction describes the loss of movement known as joint play or accessory joint movement. The purpose of the study is to identify the sacroiliac dysfunction and to study the effect of Maitland’s Mobilization on the individuals diagnosed with Sacroiliac dysfunction. The objective of the study is to find out the efficacy of Maitland’s Mobilization on the individuals with Sacroiliac dysfunction.
Methods: The total subjects (N = 30) for the study were selected by Purposive sampling .The age of study population ranged from 20-50 years of both sexes. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups, experimental and control. The experimental group is given Maitland’s mobilization and exercises for Abdominal and Multifidus muscle strengthening. The control group is given Abdominal and Multifidus muscle strengthening exercises.
Results: Two groups were compared for pain using V.A.S & functional disability by Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (M.O.L.B.P.D.Q). Pre & post assessment values within the same group were analysed by paired “t” test. The mean difference of M.O.L.B.P.D.Q after 7 days treatment was 25.67 and 3.47,
V.A.S showed a mean difference of 6.47 and 3.47 respectively in experimental and control group. The Values between the experimental & control group were compared using the student “t” test and found significant difference in reduction of pain and functional disability.
Conclusion: The study concluded that Maitland’s mobilization is a highly effective technique for the treatment of sacroiliac joint dysfunction.
Keywords: Sacro Iliac Joint Dysfunction, Maitland’s Mobilization, Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire, Visual Analog Scale.
Back ground and Objective of the study: The present study aims to investigate in vivo antioxidant activity of Orthosiphon stamineus. Plant extracts were prepared using successive solvent extraction process using petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol.
Methods: Type 2 diabetic rats were treated with extracts at the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg for 21 days and tested for changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes, catalase and peroxidase levels.
Results: Significant increase in TBARS and conjugated dienes and reduction in catalase and peroxidase were observed. All the extracts could significantly decrease TBARS and conjugated dienes; significantly increase catalse and peroxidase levels. Dose dependent and potent antioxidant effect was observed with ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts. The results of this study highlighted the antioxidant potential of O. stamineus and can be useful for protecting oxidative damage of pancreatic cells.
Conclusion: The study highlighted that the mechanisms can prevent damage of other organs and is beneficial for prevention of diabetic associated complications.
Key words: Orthosiphon stamineus, Type 2diabetes, in vivo antioxidant activity, TBARS, Conjugated dienes, Catalase, Peroxidase.
Background: The name of Parkinson’s disease is attributed to James Parkinson who first described the disease in 1987 in a treatise called “An essay on shaking palsy”. As Parkinson’s disease disturbs the locomotion of an individual it results in a substantial reduction in quality of life. Impairment in the temporal stability is worse in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Conventional Physiotherapy and Conventional Physiotherapy. The objectives of the study were to find the effect of conventional physiotherapy, conventional physiotherapy with auditory cues and the efficacy between conventional physiotherapy and conventional physiotherapy with auditory cues on the gait of subjects with Parkinson’s disease.
Methods: 30 Subjects with moderate Parkinson’s disease participated in the study and were randomly assigned into two groups. Group I received conventional physiotherapy only and group II received conventional physiotherapy with auditory cues. The gait parameters namely stride length; cadence and speed were noted before the intervention. The study duration was 4 weeks and at the end of the study period the parameters were re-assessed and the statistical analysis were done.
Results: The gait parameters were significantly improved (p<.001) in the group I undergoing conventional physiotherapy and there was also a significant improvement (p< .001) in the gait parameters of group II.
Conclusion: The study has concluded that auditory cues can be a useful tool in rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson’s disease for improvement of gait.
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, Conventional Physiotherapy, Auditory cues, Gait parameters.
Background and Objectives: The prevalence of Myofascial pain disorder has been increasing dramatically in recent years. Myofascial pain is generated by Myofascial trigger points in muscle tissue. There are various studies conducted on the efficacy of manual techniques to reduce pain due to Myofascial trigger points. Objectives of the study is to find out the effect of Myofascial Release and Deep Transverse Friction and compare the effectiveness of Myofascial Release versus Deep Transverse Friction on patients with Myofascial trigger points of upper back.
Methods: Total number of 30 subjects participated in this study. The study duration was 2 weeks, which was divided into 6 sittings alternately. Data were collected from subjects by using Visual Analog Scale before and after application of the technique. Statistical analysis has done using Wilcoxon Signed rank test and Mann Whitney U test.
Results: There was significant reduction in the level of pain on different days in both the groups. Pain level of subjects treated with Deep Transverse Friction was markedly reduced significantly with (P<0.01) immediately after the treatment in each sitting.
Conclusion: The study concluded that in comparison to Myofascial Release, the Deep Transverse Friction is more effective in reducing pain.
Keywords: Deep Transverse Friction, Myofascial Release, Myofascial Trigger Points, Visual Analog Scale.
Aim and Objective: Stretching exercises have used in many studies to reduce hamstring tightness and to improve flexibility of the muscle. This study is aimed to find the best method to improve flexibility of hamstring muscle among male adults. Objective of the study was to find out the effect of static and dynamic stretching exercise on flexibility of hamstring muscle and also to compare the effect of static over dynamic stretching exercise on flexibility of hamstring muscle.
Methods: This was a comparative experimental study on seventy four male healthy subjects from KPJ Healthcare University College, Malaysia. Convenient sampling method was used to select the samples. The subjects were selected by inclusion criteria and randomly divided equally in to two with 37 subjects in each group. Static and dynamic stretching exercises were given as intervention program for four weeks respectively for experimental and control group. Pre and post data of restricted range of movement for knee extension was measured using goniometry and documented separately for both group.
Result: In experimental and control group, pre-post statistical analysis found significant effect in increase of hamstring flexibility with P<0.0001, for right and left side. Comparative study between experimental and control group found that static stretching exercise have significant effect in increase of hamstring flexibility for right and left side with P<0.04.
Conclusion: This study concluded that hamstring flexibility improves by static and dynamic stretching exercise, but static stretching exercise found more effective over dynamic stretching exercise among male adults.
Key words: Hamstring muscle, static stretching, dynamic stretching, hamstring flexibility.
Background and Objectives: Transdermal drug delivery system overcomes the difficulties associated with oral drug delivery and improves therapeutic efficacy and safety of drugs, as it is site-specific due to temporal placement of dosage form on the body that reduces both size and number of doses.
Methods: In the present study effort was taken to formulate and evaluate Hydrogel based Transdermal patch of a selected NSAID. Nine formulations of matrix type hydrogel transdermal patches of Aceclofenac were prepared.
Results: The pre formulation results obtained for all formulations were satisfactory. The drug- excipients compatibility study was also performed using FTIR and the results established that, there is no significant compatibility in drug and excipients. The physico –chemical properties such as physical appearance, thickness, weight variation, tensile strength, surface pH, swellability, water vapour transmission rate, percentage moisture uptake and folding endurance were evaluated.
Conclusion: The in-vitro drug permeation studies of the prepared patches were conducted and finally the optimized formulation was selected.
Keywords: Aceclofenac, Poly Vinyl Alcohol, Chitosan, solvent casting method, swellability, In-vitro drug permeation study
Background: Pentraxins are a super family of evolutionarily conserved proteins considered as markers of inflammation .They are produced on exposure to pro – inflammatory stimuli like TNF -α, IL-1β and even microbial moieties. Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition initiated by gram negative organisms which cause an up regulation of pro -inflammatory mediators which in turn amplifies the production of PTX3, an acute phase protein. Since it has an extra hepatic synthesis unlike its counterpart CRP, PTX3 is used as a marker to assess the disease activity in periodontitis patients.
Methods: A total of 30 patients were divided into three groups, Group I 10 periodontally healthy subjects, Group II 20 patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis, Group III same as group II one month after receiving Scaling and Root Planing. Clinical parameters were recorded and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected from each subject for measuring PTX3 levels at baseline, and 1 month after treatment.
Results: In all evaluation periods, there was statistically significant difference in each of the studied clinical parameters and PTX3 level between Group I and Group II. There was also statistically significant reduction in each of the studied clinical parameters and PTX3 level between Group II and Group III.
Conclusions: Tissue PTX3 values can be considered as an inflammatory marker for chronic periodontitis. However further interventional studies with a larger sample size and longer follow up are required to use PTX3 as a true diagnostic marker for periodontal diseases.
Key words: Pentraxins, Periodontitis, Gingival crevicular fluid, CRP
Background and Objective: Functional recovery and motor control is one of the major concerns in stroke patients with performing activities of daily living. Major objective of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of the BATRAC Technique over the conventional physical therapy alone for functional improvement of upper extremity in hemi paretic stroke patient.
Methods: A random sampling method was used to select patients with Right MCA (Middle Cerebral Artery) stroke. Thirty patients were included and randomly divided into two groups by using lottery method, with fifteen in each group A and B. Group A underwent BATRAC Technique and group B underwent conventional physical therapy .The outcomes were measured by the MAS, STREAM and FMS to find out the functional recovery of the upper limb in stroke patients.
Results: Intra group analysis was done by Wilcoxon rank test and the inter group analysis done by Mann- Whitney test. In intra group analysis, group A, got significant reduction in spasticity and significant improvement in voluntary control & functional activities (P<0.005). Group B who underwent conventional physical therapy also showed significant reduction in spasticity & improvement in voluntary control & functional activities. In Comparison between the groups, group A had more significant improvement in voluntary control and functional activities than group B.
Conclusion: This study concluded that physiotherapy with the use of BATRAC Technique is more effective than conventional physical therapy. Statistically BATRAC Technique was highly significant in enhancing the functional improvement of upper limb in hemipareitic stroke patients with right MCA infarction.
Keywords: Stroke, Middle Cerebral Artery, BATRAC Technique, FMS, STREAM, MAS
Background and objectives: Upper-body fat distribution has long been recognized as related to increased cardiovascular disease risk, and neck skin fold or NC has been used as an index for such an adverse risk profile. This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship of NC as a parameter in predicting metabolic syndrome.
Methodology: The present study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum during the study period from January 2011 to December 2011. Hundred (100) cases of metabolic syndrome were taken based on NCEP ATP III criteria and the various components of metabolic syndrome and the NC were evaluated and compared.
Result: In this study 66% of the patients were males and 34% were females. Mean age of the study population was 54.46 ± 14.93 years. 46% of the patients had metabolic syndrome with four components and 31% had five components. The commonest component of metabolic syndrome was hypertension (95%) followed by hyper triglyceridemia (82%). Abnormal NC was observed in 97% patients and mean neck circumference was 38.93±1.95 centimeters. Waist circumference was abnormal in 74% patients. The mean waist circumference of the study population was 97.9±7.44 centimeters. Lipid abnormalities of total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and HDL were noted in 30%, 18%, 82% and 76% of the patients respectively.
Conclusion: Patients with metabolic syndrome presented with abnormal NC, which was not associated with any of the components of metabolic syndrome. However, elevated BMI had associated increased neck circumference and this association was statistically significant.
Keywords: Body mass index, metabolic syndrome, neck circumference (NC), upper body fat, waist circumference.
Background:Shin pain is a common complaint among the athletes, particularly in distance runners. The term shin splint refers to the pain along the medial border of the tibia, which usually interfere in their athletic activity and increase their disability level. Major objective of this study was to find out the efficacy of early stretching and modified foot wear on reduction pain and effect on functional abilities among the athletes.
Methods: Elite athletes from the sports department of the Mysore University of India were taken for the studies. The patients of both genders with age group between 24-32 suffer from shin pain were included for the study. The sustained stretching protocol and modified footwear were used for the experimental group and the cryotherapy and rest for the control group. A total of 30 subjects with the shin splint were participated in this study. All the subjects in this study were equally divided into experimental and control group and the treatment time fixed for four weeks.
Results: Pre and Post treatment analysis found that there was significant difference in outcome of experimental group. The study accepted the alternative hypothesis and rejected the null hypothesis. The study was statistically significant with P-<0.001.Medically the study found early stretching intervention and modification of footwear were effective in reduction of pain and increase of functional ability.
Conclusion: This study concluded that experimental group with intervention of early stretching and modified footwear was more effective on reducing pain and increasing functional ability among the athletes.
Key words: Athletes, shin splint, LEFS, cryotherapy, immobilization.
An instructional approach is one important variable to consider when providing community skills training with regards to cost effectiveness. Thus, there is a need for research in examining the effective types of instruction to train primary school children with intellectual disabilities to acquire the functional skills.
Purpose: This study examined the effectiveness of using a combination simulation instruction and Community Based Instruction (CBI) on acquisition of shopping and telephone skills among children with intellectual disabilities aged 9 to 13 years old.
Methods: A one group pre-test post-test design was used. Twelve (n=12) children with intellectual disabilities were recruited in this study. Participants were pre tested using task analysis and levels and types of prompting were measured at the beginning of study for a baseline data. After 4 weeks, participants were post tested again using task analysis and levels and types of prompting were measured.
Results: Results showed that a 4 week combination of simulation instruction and community based instruction (CBI) with a prompting strategy increased the number of steps achieved independently for the shopping and telephone tasks and reduced the number of prompt required for the completed both tasks. Conclusion: This research was carried out in a self- funded special education school setting. The study aimed to make a preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention to enhance occupational therapy service delivery. The lessons learned during the conduct of the research have provided helpful indicators which warrant further investigation and provided pointers to future research design.
Key words: community based instruction, prompting strategy, functional skills